Research Journal of Science http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/rjs <p>Research Journal of Science publishes original research paper/article, review paper/articles and short communications and reports in the fields of biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, statistics, geology, environmental sciences, agriculture, medicine, engineering and technology.</p> en-US Research Journal of Science A Preliminary Study on the Nutraceutical Potentials of Aqueous Fruit Pulp Extracts of Zizipus spina christii, Zizipus mauritiana and Chrysophyllum albidum http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/rjs/article/view/64 <p>their nutritional and medicinal benefits often because of their relative safety.This study was designed to investigate the aqueous fruit pulp extracts of <em>Zizipus spina christii, Zizipus mauritiana </em>and <em>Chrysophyllum albidum </em>for their phytochemical properties and probable antioxidant activities of the plants.</p> <p>Established colorimetric methods were used to investigate the antioxidants and the quantitative phytochemicals of the extracts.</p> <p>The study revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and phenolics in all the three extracts, tannins is lacking in <em>Chrysophyllum albidum </em>while all the extract were tested negative for saponins. <em>Z. mauritiania </em>had the highest flavonoids and total phenolic contents with values of 87.03 ± 0.02 mg/g QE and 65.76 ± 0.03 mg/g GAE respectively. <em>Z. spina christii </em>showed&nbsp; the highest vitamin C content 409.20 mg/100g, while, <em>Z. mauritiania </em>had the least 48.4 mg/100g of the three extracts. <em>C. Albidum </em>exhibited significantly (p&lt;0.05) potent total antioxidant capacity compared to α-tocopherol (vitamin E) a known antioxidant. All the three extracts exhibited the ability of ferric reducing power compared to ascorbic acid (vitamin C).</p> <p>This work has shown the fruits extracts of <em>C. albidum, Z. spina christii </em>and <em>Z. mauritiania </em>to be of promising nutraceutical potentials as likely new sources of raw materials for industries requiring antioxidants as medicinal and therapeutic agents.</p> Aliyu Daja Zainab Kassim Mohammed Teddy Christopher Igein Abubakar Danladi Yusuf Copyright (c) 2019 Research Journal of Science 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 19 1 35 46 Statistical Convergence of Double Sequences of Weight http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/rjs/article/view/65 <p>In this paper, we shall extend the recently introduced summability notion of statistical convergence of weight , to double sequences and examine some of their main properties.</p> Brono , A.M. Ali, A.G.K. Copyright (c) 2019 Research Journal of Science 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 19 1 102 109 On Generalized Statistical Convergence of Double Sequences in Topological Groups http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/rjs/article/view/66 <p>Following the recent introduction of the concept of statistical convergence in&nbsp; topological groups and some inclusion relations between the sets of statistically convergent and statistically convergent sequences in topological groups; we shall in&nbsp; this&nbsp; paper&nbsp; analogously&nbsp; introduce&nbsp; the&nbsp; notion of &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;convergence&nbsp; of double sequences in topological groups. Some inclusion relations between the sets of statistically convergent double sequences and ly convergent sequences will also be proved. We shall also introduce the definition of statistically convergence in topological groups and prove some relations</p> Brono , A.M. Ali, A.G.K. Copyright (c) 2019 Research Journal of Science 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 19 1 93 102 The Relatıonshıp Between Foreıgn Dırect Investment and Economıc Growth ın Nıgerıa: Usıng Var,Vecm and Granger Causalıty Tests http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/rjs/article/view/67 <p>This research uses a Co-integration VAR model to study the contemporaneous long-run dynamics of the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Natural Gas Revenue (NGR) on Growth Domestic Products (GDP) in Nigeria. Secondary data for the period 1970 to 2014 was used for the study. The Unit Root Test suggests that all the variables are integrated of order 1. The VAR model was appropriately identified by using AIC information criteria and using Johansen Co-integrated test, the VECM model has exactly one co-integration relation. The study further investigates the causal relationship using the Granger causality analysis which indicates a uni-directional causality relationship between FDI and GDP, NGR and FDI while we observe a bi- directional relationship between NGR and GDP at 5% which is in line with other&nbsp; studies</p> Faruku, A.Z. Harun, B.R. Yusuf B. Copyright (c) 2019 Research Journal of Science 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 19 1 60 71 Effects of Nıgerıan Foreıgn Direct Investment on Economıc Growth : An Empırıcal Investıgatıon Usıng the Bounds Test for Co-Integratıon and Causalıty Tests http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/rjs/article/view/68 <p>This paper empirically examined the level relationship and the direction of causality between Growth Domestic Product, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Inflation rate in Nigeria using auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) modeling approach and bounds test for co-integration and Granger causality tests. Results suggest that both variables are in long-run equilibrium relationship when GDP is dependent variable under the ARDL. Also the investigation shows that there is only one granger causality relationship which is a uni direction between inflation and foreingn direct investment this means that inflation causes foreingn dırect ınvestment ın Nigeria.Finally the investigation found a one co integration relation using Trace Test and Eigen value approach.</p> Faruku, A.Z. Harun, B.R. Yusuf B. Copyright (c) 2019 Research Journal of Science 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 19 1 83 92 Effect of Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphur on Growth and Sporulation of Colletotrichum graminicola http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/rjs/article/view/69 <p>The sorghum anthracnose fungus, <em>Colletotrichum graminicola </em>is a long established cause of reduced yield in sorghum globally including Nigeria. An <em>in vitro </em>study was carried out to assess the responses of <em>Colletotrichum graminicola </em>to different carbon, nitrogen and sulphur sources using Czapek dox broth as the basal medium. Sucrose was replaced with glucose, maltose and soluble starch; sodium nitrate was replaced with urea, potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphate; while magnesium sulphate was replaced with sodium sulphate, copper sulphate and zinc sulphate. Among the various carbon sources tested, glucose, sucrose and maltose supported good growth and sporulation but the optimum growth was observed in glucose. Potassium nitrate was found to be the best source of nitrogen for growth of <em>Colletotrichum graminicola </em>while NH4SO4 was the best for sporulation. The best sulphur source for growth was MgSO4; all other sources were less effective than the control.</p> Tata, S. Donli, P.O. Abana, P. Mohammed, F.K. Peter, A. Copyright (c) 2019 Research Journal of Science 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 19 1 110 121 Modeling Birthweight Using Quantile Regression at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Borno State, Nigeria http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/rjs/article/view/70 <p>Extreme infant’s birthweights have short and long-term effects on the health of infant and mother leading to complications causing neonatal deaths and or maternal deaths. We use quantile regression analysis which is robust against extreme values to estimate the relationship of&nbsp; with&nbsp; conditional on quantiles&nbsp; (or percentiles) of by modeling the entire distribution of the response variable. In this work, we model the birthweight of infants on related maternal factors, using quantile regression where the results show that different factor combinations&nbsp; are&nbsp; significant&nbsp; at&nbsp; different&nbsp; levels&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; quantiles;&nbsp; at maternal height, no prenatal care and pregnancy complications were all statistically significant (&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ); at&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; , maternal weight, no prenatal care,&nbsp; 1st visit at 3rd trimester and pregnancy complications were found to be statistically significant with&nbsp; (&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; );&nbsp; and at&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; , maternal weight and&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; education&nbsp; level&nbsp; 3&nbsp; are&nbsp; statistically&nbsp; significant&nbsp; with&nbsp;&nbsp; .&nbsp; These&nbsp; results&nbsp;&nbsp; indicate the performance of the quantile regression in assessing the entire distribution of the infant’s birthweight.</p> Bakari,H.R. Dibal, N.P. Falmata, A.M. Terab, M.A. Copyright (c) 2019 Research Journal of Science 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 19 1 1 10 Development and Analysis of a Novel Gray Scale Image Encryption Algorithm Using a Modified 1D Logistic Map http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/rjs/article/view/71 <p>The application of one dimensional (1D) logistic map in information security has been studied for years by the cryptanalyst and recent studies have shown that without improvement on chaotic maps such as the quadratic map and the logistic map that have been studied for the past forty years in securing sensitive images, our applications will remain unchanged and might be subject to different attacks in the future. In view of this, various modified versions of 1D logistic map have been developed for cryptographic applications by many researchers. In this paper, a novel gray scale image encryption algorithm using a modified 1D logistic map was developed and analyzed. The algorithm was simulated using two standard test gray images: Lena and Cameraman. Both images are of size 256 x 256 and stored with TIF file format. Performance analysis using the Histogram Uniformity Analysis, Correlation Coefficient Analysis, Number of Pixel Change Rate (NPCR) and Unified Average Changing Intensity (UACI) were carried out on the proposed scheme. The results obtained from the analysis show that the scheme has proved to resists the known attacks (Statistical, Differential and Brute-force attacks).</p> Yakubu, H. J. Zirra, P.B. Copyright (c) 2019 Research Journal of Science 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 19 1 46 59 Soil Forming Processes Influnce on Pedogenesis And Classification of Alluvial Soils in Sudan Savannah, North Western Nigeria http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/rjs/article/view/72 <p>Soil map at a scale of 1:25,000 covering a flood plain area of 12,441ha was digitized according to physiographic units; lower terraces, higher terraces and transitional belts. The aim was to assess the role of the different soil forming processes to the development and classification of soils in relation to the physiographic units in the area. Four soil mapping units (Ba, To, La and Sn) were identified and two typical pedons were chosen from each mapping unit and fully described according to Soil Survey Division Staff (1993). Soil samples were collected from the pedogenic horizons of the representative pedons and analyzed for relevant physical and chemical properties. Profiles To, Ba, and La were on the higher terraces with depressions and higher terraces that are nearly leveled, while Sn was on lower terraces that are moderately well drained with depressions. The soils were deep and have strong brown to yellowish red (7.5YR 4/6) colours with loamy sand /sandy loam texture. The soil reaction was strongly acidic to neutral (5.4- 6.6). They have low to moderate levels of organic carbon, total N and available P. The soils also have low inherent fertility status with low exchangeable Ca, Mg, Na and K, cation exchange capacity and total exchangeable bases. The dominant soil forming processes that influence the rate of soil development in the area include; ripening, melanization and homogenization leading to the formation of weak profile development. Profiles To and La were classified as Typic Ustifluvents at USDA sub-group level and correlated with Haplic Fluvisols (FAO/UNESCO), while Ba was Aquic Ustifluvents correlated with Gleyic Fluvisols(FAO/UNESCO). Profile Sn was classified as Typic Haplustepts in the USDA and correlated with Haplic Cambisols (FAO/UNESCO). Sustainable soil management practices to be adopted in these soils include: effective crop residue management with increased use of leguminous plants, post-harvest incorporation of crop residue into the soil and judicious and appropriate use of chemical fertilizer.</p> Ya’u S.L. Maniyunda, L.M. Copyright (c) 2019 Research Journal of Science 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 19 1 30 45 Trace Elements Geochemistry of Upper Cretaceous Sediments In Bornu Basin At Its Boundary With Gongola Basin, Ne Nigeria: Implication For Petroleum Source Rock Evaluation http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/rjs/article/view/73 <p>Geological mapping coupled with sample collection was carried out within the study area. Geological map was produced distinguishing different lithological units on basis of their field relationship using various geological parameters. Trace elements geochemical methods were employed using AAS and MR-EAS to determine the maturation level of shale samples for trace elements concentrations that are believed to have been incorporated into the petroleum charge system. These are; Biophile elements: V and Ni, the concentration of V ranged from 0.264 to 1.288ppm with an average of 0.6735ppm, Ni concentration ranged from 0.298 to 0.722ppm with an average of 0.425ppm. Siderophile elements: Fe, Co, Mo, Cr, Mn. The concentration of Fe ranged from 1.289 to 264ppm with an average of 144.12ppm, Co ranged 0.352 to 0.783ppm with an average of 0.50ppm. Mo concentration ranged from 0.030 to 0.133ppm with an average of 0.04ppm, the concentration of Cr ranged from 0.233 to 0.753ppm with an average of 0.428ppm, while Mn ranged from 0.821 to 7.567ppm with an average of 3.692ppm. Chalcophile elements: Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd. The concentration of Cu ranged from 0.000 to 0.238ppm with an average of 0.0829ppm, Zn has concentration values that ranged from 0.000 to 0.425ppm with an average of 0.104ppm. The concentration of Pb ranged from 0.000 to 0.339ppm with an average of 0.0035ppm, Cd concentration ranged from 0.000 to 0.020ppm in the analyzed source rocks (SR) samples with an average of 0.004ppm. The overall results showed that the Fe and Mn (siderophile) elements have the highest concentration value which does not correlate with crude oils analyzed from different parts of the world. In general, source rocks have higher geochemical values than crude oils samples, but in this study the concentration of the elements are mediocre which may be as a result of shallow depth of burial and lack of sedimentary cover over the targeted source rocks. This could be the principal factor. Some of the trace elements have shown close relationship in terms of their concentration with some Niger Delta crude oils and New Zealand while others differs considerably. Time temperature index of maturity (TTI) is also a very important component in aiding maturation of source rocks. Most matured source rocks are mostly found in deeper part of the basins, though this study was carried out at the fringe of the basin where the occurrence of most facies is at shallow depths.</p> Mohammed,Y.B. Hamza,H. Danbatta, U.A. Copyright (c) 2019 Research Journal of Science 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 19 1 11 29