Trace Elements Geochemistry of Upper Cretaceous Sediments In Bornu Basin At Its Boundary With Gongola Basin, Ne Nigeria: Implication For Petroleum Source Rock Evaluation


Trace Elements
Upper Cretaceous
Chad Basin
Gongola Basin

How to Cite

Mohammed,Y.B., Hamza,H., & Danbatta, U.A. (2019). Trace Elements Geochemistry of Upper Cretaceous Sediments In Bornu Basin At Its Boundary With Gongola Basin, Ne Nigeria: Implication For Petroleum Source Rock Evaluation. Research Journal of Science, 19(1), 11 - 29. Retrieved from


Geological mapping coupled with sample collection was carried out within the study area. Geological map was produced distinguishing different lithological units on basis of their field relationship using various geological parameters. Trace elements geochemical methods were employed using AAS and MR-EAS to determine the maturation level of shale samples for trace elements concentrations that are believed to have been incorporated into the petroleum charge system. These are; Biophile elements: V and Ni, the concentration of V ranged from 0.264 to 1.288ppm with an average of 0.6735ppm, Ni concentration ranged from 0.298 to 0.722ppm with an average of 0.425ppm. Siderophile elements: Fe, Co, Mo, Cr, Mn. The concentration of Fe ranged from 1.289 to 264ppm with an average of 144.12ppm, Co ranged 0.352 to 0.783ppm with an average of 0.50ppm. Mo concentration ranged from 0.030 to 0.133ppm with an average of 0.04ppm, the concentration of Cr ranged from 0.233 to 0.753ppm with an average of 0.428ppm, while Mn ranged from 0.821 to 7.567ppm with an average of 3.692ppm. Chalcophile elements: Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd. The concentration of Cu ranged from 0.000 to 0.238ppm with an average of 0.0829ppm, Zn has concentration values that ranged from 0.000 to 0.425ppm with an average of 0.104ppm. The concentration of Pb ranged from 0.000 to 0.339ppm with an average of 0.0035ppm, Cd concentration ranged from 0.000 to 0.020ppm in the analyzed source rocks (SR) samples with an average of 0.004ppm. The overall results showed that the Fe and Mn (siderophile) elements have the highest concentration value which does not correlate with crude oils analyzed from different parts of the world. In general, source rocks have higher geochemical values than crude oils samples, but in this study the concentration of the elements are mediocre which may be as a result of shallow depth of burial and lack of sedimentary cover over the targeted source rocks. This could be the principal factor. Some of the trace elements have shown close relationship in terms of their concentration with some Niger Delta crude oils and New Zealand while others differs considerably. Time temperature index of maturity (TTI) is also a very important component in aiding maturation of source rocks. Most matured source rocks are mostly found in deeper part of the basins, though this study was carried out at the fringe of the basin where the occurrence of most facies is at shallow depths.



Adegoke, D. S., Agumanu, A. E. Benkhlil, J. S. and Ajayi, P. O. 1986. New stratigraphic, sedimentologic structural data on the Kerri- Kerri Formation, Bauchi and Borno States, Nigeria. J.Afri. Earth Sci. 5, 249-277

Avbovbo, A. A. Ayoola, E. O. Osahon, G.A. 1986. Depositional and structural styles in Chad Basin of northeastern Nigeria. AAPG Bull. 70, 1787-1798

Barber. W. (1957). Lower Turonian ammonites from northeastern Nigeria. Bull. Geol. Surv. Nigeria. 26, 1-86.

Burke, K. C., 1976a: The Chad basin. An active intra-continental basin. Tectonophysics, 36. 179-206.

Carter, J. D., Barber, W., and Tait. E. A., (1963). The geology of parts of Adamawa, Bauchi,and Bornu Provinces in northeastern Nigeria: Geological Survey of Nigeria, Bull. 30, 99p.

Dike, E. F. C. (1995). Stratigraphy and structure of the Kerr- Kerri Basin, north-eastern Nigeria. J. Min.Geol. 25, 77-83.

Ejedawe, J. E., 1982. Occurrence of giant oil fields in the Niger Delta basin. Journal of Mining and Geology, 18(2), 7-15

Genik, G. I. (1992). Regional framework structural and petroleum aspects of rift basins in Niger, Chad and the Central African Republic (C.A.R.). Tectonophysics, 213, 169-185.

Genik, G. J. (1993). Petroleum Geology of Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins in Niger, Chad and Central African Republic. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bull. 77 (8)1405- 1434.

Hamza, H., Obaje, N. G. Moumouni, A. (2012). Benthonic Foraminiferal Assemblages from the Bornu Basin, Northeastern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 48(2), 91-115.

Knebel, G. M., and Rodriguez-Eraso, G., 1956. Habitat of some oil: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bull, 40, 547- 561.

Laura, P. Jemy, N., Greg, G. Steve, W. Lidia, B and Francisco, L. L. (2017). Comparison of preparation Methods for the Determination of Metals in Petroleum Fractions (1000oF +) by Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Specstroscopy, Energy Fuels. 31(8), 7809-7815.

Mohammed, Y. B. (2010). Geochemical assessment of Cretaceous sediments in the Nigerian sector of the Chad basin from Kadaru-1 and Herwa-1 exploratory wells for possible petroleum generation. Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resource Management, 2, 23-36

Mohammed, Y. B., and M. W. Sidi, (2014). Mineralogical alteration of Kerri- Kerri Sandstone exposed in Gombe, Gongola Basin. Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resource Management. (6), 1.

Obaje, N. G., Wehner, H., Hamza, H. and Scheeder, G., 2004. New geochemical data from the Nigerian sector of the Chad basin: implication of hydrocarbons prospectivity. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 38, 477- 487.

Obi, G. C., (1990). Upper Cretaceous Gongila Formation in the Hawal Basin, NE Benue

Odusina, A. A., Mubarak S. O., Beka, F. T., and Nwangwu, U. (1993). Gelogy and petroleum potential of the Nigerian sector of the Chad basin. Res. Bulletin. 111, Exploration Section (R&D, Project N0.ER/RD/43. NNPC, Port Harcourt, 47.

Okosun, E.A. (1995). Review of the geology of Bornu Basin. Journal of Mining and Geology, 31, 113-122.

Olugbemiro, R. O., Ligouis, B., and Abaa, S. I., (1997). The Cretaceous Series in the Chad Basin, NE, Nigeria: source rock potential and thermal maturity. Journal of Mining and Geology, 20(1), 51- 68.

Petters, S. W. (1981). Stratigraphy of Chad and Iullemden basins (West Africa). Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 74(1), 139-159

Petters, S. W. (1996). Foraminiferal biofacies in the Nigerian rift and continental margindeltas. In: Geology of Deltas (Edited by Oti, M. N. and Postma, G. 219-235.)

Popoff, M. (1988). Du Gondwana and L’Atlantique sud: Connexions du fosse de la Benoue les bassins du nord-est brasilien junqu’a louverture du golfe de Guinee au cretace interieur. Journal African Earth Sciences, 7, 409-431.

Popoff, M., Wiedman, J., and DE-Klasz, I., (1986). The Upper Creyaceous Gongila and Pindiga Formations, Northeastern Nigeria: Subdivisions Age, Stratigrapic correlations and palaeogeographic implications. Eclogne Geological Helv, 79(2) 343-363.

Price, L. C. (1972). Aqueous soloubility of petroleum as applied to its origin and primary migration. AAPG Bulletin, 176, 71-75.

Saugy, L. (1987). The Benue Trough and Bornu Basin: New geophysical data enlightening the distribution of Cretaceous Sedimentary Basins. Bulletin Centres Recerche Exploration Production Elf- Aquitane. 11, 178-180.

Stratigraphy and structure of the Cretaceous Gongola Basin, northeast Nigeria. Buss Centres Rech. Explor- prod.2, 153- 185.

trough: A storm and wave dominated regressive shoreline complex. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 26(40) 619- 632.

Whiteman, A. J. (1982). Nigeria: its petroleum resources potential.

Graham and Trtman, London, UK. 1, 176, 2, 238

Zaborski, P. M. P., Ugbodunlunwa, F., Idonigie, A., Nnabo, P. P., and Ibe, K. (1997)).


Download data is not yet available.