Soil map at a scale of 1:25,000 covering a flood plain area of 12,441ha was digitized according to physiographic units; lower terraces, higher terraces and transitional belts. The aim was to assess the role of the different soil forming processes to the development and classification of soils in relation to the physiographic units in the area. Four soil mapping units (Ba, To, La and Sn) were identified and two typical pedons were chosen from each mapping unit and fully described according to Soil Survey Division Staff (1993). Soil samples were collected from the pedogenic horizons of the representative pedons and analyzed for relevant physical and chemical properties. Profiles To, Ba, and La were on the higher terraces with depressions and higher terraces that are nearly leveled, while Sn was on lower terraces that are moderately well drained with depressions. The soils were deep and have strong brown to yellowish red (7.5YR 4/6) colours with loamy sand /sandy loam texture. The soil reaction was strongly acidic to neutral (5.4- 6.6). They have low to moderate levels of organic carbon, total N and available P. The soils also have low inherent fertility status with low exchangeable Ca, Mg, Na and K, cation exchange capacity and total exchangeable bases. The dominant soil forming processes that influence the rate of soil development in the area include; ripening, melanization and homogenization leading to the formation of weak profile development. Profiles To and La were classified as Typic Ustifluvents at USDA sub-group level and correlated with Haplic Fluvisols (FAO/UNESCO), while Ba was Aquic Ustifluvents correlated with Gleyic Fluvisols(FAO/UNESCO). Profile Sn was classified as Typic Haplustepts in the USDA and correlated with Haplic Cambisols (FAO/UNESCO). Sustainable soil management practices to be adopted in these soils include: effective crop residue management with increased use of leguminous plants, post-harvest incorporation of crop residue into the soil and judicious and appropriate use of chemical fertilizer.
Adamu, G. and Aliyu, A.K. (2012). Determination of the Influence of Texture and Organic matter on Soil Water Holding Capacity in and around omas Irrigation Scheme,Dambatta Local Government, Kano State. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. 4. 1038-1044.
Bennet,J.G., Blair,A.B., Raius,P.N., Gosden,W.B., Howard,A.A., Hutchson,W.B., Kerr,J.E., Mansfield,L.J. and Rose,I. (1979). Land Resources of Central Nigeria. Agricultural Development Possibilities. Vol.5B. The Kaduna plains. Pp 9-34.
Blake, G.R. and Hartge, K.H. (1986). Bulk density. In Klute (eds). Methods of soil analysis, Part 1: Physical and Mineralogical methods. 2nd Ed. ASA, SSSA. Madison, WI. 377-382 pp.
Bockheim,J. and Gennadiyev, A.N. (2000). The Role of Soil Forming Processes in the Definition of Taxa in Soil Taxonomy and the World Soil Reference Base. Z. Geoderma. 95(1) 53-72.
Brady, N.C. and Weil, R.R. (2018). The nature and properties of soils. 14th edition Pearson Printice-Hall Inc. India. 881 pp.
Bremner, J.M. and Mulvaney, C.S. (1982). Nitrogen-Total. In Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keeney, D.R. (eds). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2 Agron 9. Madison WI. 595-624.
Bullinger-W.G. and Gobat, J.-M. (2006). Identification of facies models in alluvial soil formation: The case of a Swiss alpine floodplain. Geomorphology. 74.181-195. 10.1016/j.geomorph.2005.07.016.
Buol, S.W, Hole, F.D. and McCracken, R.J. (1997). Soil Genesis and Classification, 4th edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames.pp 527
Chude VO, Malgwi WB, Amapu, IY, Ano OA (2004). Manual on soil fertility assessment. Federal Fertilizer Department (FFD), in Collaboration with National Special Programme for Food Security, Abuja, Nigeria.
Daniel, M.B. (1985). Post Irrigation Assessment of Soil Nutrient Status in The Tomas River Project Area. Kano State. Proceedings of the second Land Resources Workshop, Bayero University, Kano.
Daniels, J.M.(2003) Floodplain Aggradation and Pedogenesis in a Semiarid Environment. Geomorphology 56,225-242.
Enwezor, W.O.,Udo, E.J.,Usoroh,N.J., Ayotade,K.A., Adepetu,J.A.,Chude, V.O. and Udegbe,C.E. (1989). Fertilizer use and management practices for crops in Nigeria. Series No 2 Federal Ministry of Agric. Water Resources and Rural Development. Lagos. 163pp.
Esu, I.E. (1982). Evalution of soils for irrigation in the Kaduna Area of Nigeria. Unpublished PhD Thesis ABU Zaria, Nigeria. 305 pp.
Esu, I.E. (2010). Soil characterization, classification and survey. 1st published. HEBN publishers Plc. 232p
FAO (1998). World Reference Base for Soil Resource. World Soil Resources Reports 84. Rome. Italy: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.
FAO/UNESCO. (2006). World reference base for soil resources: A framework for International Classification, Correlation and Communication. World Soil Resources Reports 103. 128pp.
Fasina, A.S., Raji, A., Oluwatosin, G.A., Shittu,O.S., Omotoso, S.O. and Awe, G.O.(2015). Properties, Genesis, Classification, Capability and Sustainable Management of Soils from South-Western
Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Soil and Environmental Research. 13:65 – 75.
Gerrard, A.J. (1992). Soil Morphology: An Integarion of Pedology and Geomorphology. Chapman and Hall;London, 260pp.
Hassan, A.M. (2010). Micromorphological and Mineralogical Evaluation of Ultisols developed over different parent materials in Northern Guinea Savannah, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD Thesis. ABU Zaria, Nigeria.193pp.
IITA. (1979). Selected methods for soils and plant analysis. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Manual Series No.1 70 pp.
Kharesat, S.A. (2005). Formation and properties of inceptisols (Cambisols) of major Agricultural Rainfed areas in Jordan. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Sciences.Fb. (2005); 51(1): 15-23 Taylor and Francis.
Malgwi, W.B. (2001). Characterization of salt affected soils in some selected locations in the north western zone of Nigeria. Unpublished PhD. Thesis Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, 230pp.
Maniyunda, L.M. (2012). Pedogenesis of a lithosequence in the Northen Guinea Savannah of Kaduna State Nigeria. Unpublished PhD. Thesis Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, 223pp.
MANR. (1978). Ministry of Agriculture And Natural Resources, Kano State.
Progress Report No.1 Tomas Irrigation Project. Associated Consulting Engineers (ACE) Ltd.
Martini, I.P. and Chestworth, W.(1992): Weathering, Soils and Paleosols: Developments in Earth Surface Processes II; Elsevier: Amsterdam,19-40.
Nelson, D. W. and Sommers, L.E. (1982). Organic carbon. In Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keeney, D.R. (eds). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2 Agron 9. Madison WI. 538-580.
NIMET (2013): Forecat office, Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport.
Obigbesan, G. O. (2009). Impact of Liebig’s research on the development of Agriculture in Africa. Guest Lecture, 33rd Annual Conference of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria. Agric. Research and Training Inst. Ibadan, Oyo State– Nigeria. 9th – 13th March.
Ogunwale, J.A.(1973). The genesis and classification of soils derived from sandstones of various lithological origin in Nigeria. PhD thesis (unpublished). University of Ibadan, Nigeria.275 pp.
Pons, L.J. and Zonneveld,I.S.(1965): Soil Ripening and Soil Classification: Initial Soil Formation in Alluvial Deposits and a Classification of the Resulting Soils. Wegningen: international Institute for Land Reclammation and Improvement, Publication, 13.
Raji, B.A. (1995). Pedogenesis of ancient dune soils in the Sokoto sedimentary basin, North Western Nigeria, Ph.D thesis ABU Zaria, Nigeria. 194pp.
Randall, J.S. and Michael,I.T. (2015). Soils: Genesis and Geomorphology. 2nd edn. www.cambridge.org. Cambridge University Press. Printed in United State of America. 771pp.
Rhoades, J.D. (1982). Cation exchange capacity. In Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keeney, D.R. (eds). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2 Agron 9. Madison WI. 149-157.
Soil Survey Division Staff. (1993). Soil Survey Manual. USDA Agric. Handbook 18 US Government printing office. Washington, D.C.
Soil Survey Staff, (1999). Soil Taxonomy. A basic system for soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. US Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 436. Washington, DC. US Government printing office. P 869.
Soil Survey Staff. (2010). Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 11th Edition, USDA-NRCS, Washington DC.
Soil Survey Staff. (2014). Keys to soil taxonomy, 12th edition Washington D.C. US Department of Agriculture. P 326.
Thomas, G.W. (1982). Exchangeable cations. In Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keeney, D.R. (eds). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2 Agron 9. Madison WI. 159-165.
Udo, E.J., Ibia, T.O., Ogunwale, J.A., Ano, A.O. and Esu, I.E. (2009). Manual of Soil, Plant and Water Analyses. Sibon Books Limited. Lagos, Nigeria. 183 pp.
Umeugochukwu, O.P. (2009). Morphology, Characterization and Classification of Soils of API- River Flood plain in OPI, South eastern Nigeria.. M.sc. Thesis unpbublished. Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 85pp.
Ya’u S.L. (2015). Land Evaluation using Conventional and Satellite Data Techniques in Tomas Irrigation Scheme, Kano State. PhD Thesis A.B.U. Zaria 181pp. Unpublished.
Yaro, D.T. (2005). The position of plinthite in a landscape and its effects on soil properties. Ph.D Thesis. Ahmadu Bello University, Zari. Nigeria. 225pp.