Soil Forming Processes Influnce on Pedogenesis And Classification of Alluvial Soils in Sudan Savannah, North Western Nigeria
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Keywords

Alluvial
Higher terraces
Lower terraces
Pedogenesis
Sudan Savanna

How to Cite

Ya’u S.L., & Maniyunda, L.M. (2019). Soil Forming Processes Influnce on Pedogenesis And Classification of Alluvial Soils in Sudan Savannah, North Western Nigeria. Research Journal of Science, 19(1), 30 - 45. Retrieved from http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/rjs/article/view/72

Abstract

Soil map at a scale of 1:25,000 covering a flood plain area of 12,441ha was digitized according to physiographic units; lower terraces, higher terraces and transitional belts. The aim was to assess the role of the different soil forming processes to the development and classification of soils in relation to the physiographic units in the area. Four soil mapping units (Ba, To, La and Sn) were identified and two typical pedons were chosen from each mapping unit and fully described according to Soil Survey Division Staff (1993). Soil samples were collected from the pedogenic horizons of the representative pedons and analyzed for relevant physical and chemical properties. Profiles To, Ba, and La were on the higher terraces with depressions and higher terraces that are nearly leveled, while Sn was on lower terraces that are moderately well drained with depressions. The soils were deep and have strong brown to yellowish red (7.5YR 4/6) colours with loamy sand /sandy loam texture. The soil reaction was strongly acidic to neutral (5.4- 6.6). They have low to moderate levels of organic carbon, total N and available P. The soils also have low inherent fertility status with low exchangeable Ca, Mg, Na and K, cation exchange capacity and total exchangeable bases. The dominant soil forming processes that influence the rate of soil development in the area include; ripening, melanization and homogenization leading to the formation of weak profile development. Profiles To and La were classified as Typic Ustifluvents at USDA sub-group level and correlated with Haplic Fluvisols (FAO/UNESCO), while Ba was Aquic Ustifluvents correlated with Gleyic Fluvisols(FAO/UNESCO). Profile Sn was classified as Typic Haplustepts in the USDA and correlated with Haplic Cambisols (FAO/UNESCO). Sustainable soil management practices to be adopted in these soils include: effective crop residue management with increased use of leguminous plants, post-harvest incorporation of crop residue into the soil and judicious and appropriate use of chemical fertilizer.

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