Media & Communication Currents http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/mcc <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Media and Communication Currents</em> is a journal devoted to intellectual thinking, based on historical, epistemological, methodological, theoretical and technical/policy discourses and expositions on any aspect of media and communication. Therefore, research and discussions that help to understand better, or reconceptualise the understanding of media or communication, popular culture and cinema, public relations, and advertising studies, social communication, new media, language uses in the media, communication and cultural policies, social and national identities, gender studies, sports and leisure, tourism and heritage, among other related issues and other social contexts are its area of interests. Given the link between history, epistemology, methodology, theory, and research, we are open to submissions of papers if it demonstrates a clear endorsement of Communication and media.</p> Department of Mass Communication, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria en-US Media & Communication Currents 2635-389X The Impact of Transnational Broadcast of European Football Leagues on Migration of Footballers of Nigeria’s Elite Local Leagues http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/mcc/article/view/106 <p style="text-align: justify;">There is ample literature on transnational broadcasting which including the broadcasting of European football in Africa. Presently, transnational broadcasters such as CanalSat Horizons, Supersport TV, TV5, and Kwese Sports dominate sports broadcasting across the continent. The effect is numerous including footballer’s migration, declining viewership for local free-to-air television, low local advertising patronage and marketing, and the decline of stadium spectatorship as fans re-locate to bars and restaurants to watch European football. This study discusses this phenomenon and traces its genesis including emergence of satellite television and liberalization of the broadcast industry in the continent. Importantly, it also discusses how local broadcasters are resisting this phenomenon, through an umbrella group, African Union of Broadcasters (AUB), who have won some negotiated concessions. Uses and Gratification and Electronic colonialism were the theoretical frameworks used for this study. The study was qualitative and used the interview as an instrument for data collection from 19 out of 36 sports journalists drawn across Nigeria. Finally, it discusses problems and solutions to marketing local African football. These solutions include increased cooperation among the free-to-air stations in Africa, development of aggressively marketed local leagues and clubs, and encouraging pro-African sports network.</p> Unwana Samuel Akpan, Ph.D. Copyright (c) 2020 Media & Communication Currents 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 4 2 1 21 Risk Communication and the Coverage of COVID-19 Pandemic by Selected Nigerian Newspapers http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/mcc/article/view/107 <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper examined selected Nigerian newspapers’ (Daily Sun, Daily Trust, The Guardian and The Nation) coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic on Risk Communication from March1 – April 30, 2020.The study focused on the frequency of COVID-19 coverage, the journalistic genres used for risk communication in the coverage of COVID-19 pandemic and the risk communication components used in COVID-19 coverage. The study found relevance in situational theory of publics and deliberative process model as theoretical framework. The study adopted content analysis to examine a total of 244 editions (census study) of four newspapers; Daily Sun, Daily Trust, The Guardian and The Nation, published in two months (March1 – April 30, 2020). Data was collected using a coding sheet and analysed. Results showed that straight news was the dominant journalistic genre used in the coverage of COVID- 19 with 3,302. Nigerian newspapers accorded COVID-19 much attention in coverage with a total of 6,054 stories. The study concluded that the component of efficacy was rated low, specifically ‘the outcomes of the preventive actions. The study recommends among other things that Nigerian newspapers, in their coverage of pandemic outbreak, should use feature stories to enhance depth of coverage.</p> Ndonima Uhwe Danjuma Hembamtor Millicent Agir B. T. Dansoho Copyright (c) 2020 Media & Communication Currents 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 4 2 22 51 Public Awareness, Knowledge and Perception of Covid-19 in Tarauni LGA and Kano Metropolitan Area of Kano State, Nigeria http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/mcc/article/view/108 <p style="text-align: justify;">The outbreak of coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic has impacted and changed lives on a global scale. Since the first report of the confirmed cases of the Covid-19 in China and spread, the world has witnessed unprecedented mortality and morbidity, resulting in global public health emergency generating different public perception. This study examines public perception of the pandemic in Tarauni and Kano Municipal LGA. The objectives of the study are to determine: residents’ awareness on Covid-19; the residents’ knowledge of Covid-19; and the residents’ perception of the existence of Covid-19 among residents of Tarauni LGA and Kano Metropolitan Area. Perception Theory was and Knowledge Gap Theory was adopted for the study. Survey method was employed for the study and 400 respondents selected through multi-stage sampling and questionnaires as a data collection tool. The study found that respondents are aware of the Covid-19. The knowledge of Covid-19 in the two local governments is 23.4%. The study further found that majority of the respondents did not believe that Covid-19 exists. The study concludes that there is a lacuna regarding public awareness, knowledge and perception of Covid-19 in Tarauni LGA and Kano Metropolitan Area of Kano State.</p> Umaru A. Pate, (Prof.) Suleiman M. Yar’Adua, (PhD) Aondover Eric Msughter, (PhD Fellow) Copyright (c) 2020 Media & Communication Currents 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 4 2 52 69 Frame Analysis of Hate Speech issues in Selected Nigerian Newspapers http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/mcc/article/view/109 <p style="text-align: justify;">The study examined how Punch and Independent newspapers in Nigeria framed hate speech issue. The goals of the study were to determine the frequency, genre the stories appeared, sources for the framed stories and the type of frame they were depicted. Frame analysis was applied to a sample of 95 editorial items between 1st June, 2017 and 31st May, 2018. The study found that straight news and opinion articles were predominant in the coverage of the selected newspapers. Applying deductive approach to frame analysis, the study identified six frames – freedom, regulation, attribution of responsibility, action, conflict and economic consequences. Elites in the society were generally the sources for the frames. Second, attribution of responsibility frame proved that framing was a contest for definition of reality as the two political parties struggled to attribute the rise of hate speech to each other. Given that most of the sources of framed stories were from the elites, the study, therefore, concludes that the voices of ordinary Nigerians were marginalised and recommended that journalists’ sourcing system which gives undue voice to the elites should be reconsidered for a more inclusive one.</p> Eze, Ogemdi Uchenna Ezeah, Greg H. (Ph.D) Copyright (c) 2020 Media & Communication Currents 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 4 2 70 90 Media Ownership, Political Party Affiliation and Objective Reporting in Nigeria: Analysis of Cases http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/mcc/article/view/110 <p style="text-align: justify;">The numerous functions which the media perform in the society are made possible through the efforts of journalists and reporters who assemble stories they consider newsworthy for consumption by the audience. This study examined the influence of media owners who have political party affiliation on objective reporting. The aim of the study was to identify and analyse cases where in media owners have influenced objective reporting in Nigeria resulting from their political affiliation. The study employed the qualitative approach and analysed some purposively sampled documented cases. The theory of media ownership was adopted as the theoretical base of this work. The study found out that the cases analysed showed that media owners who belong to political parties influence objective reporting in Nigeria. The study concludes that as long as the media owners are members of political parties, news stories will always slant in favour of the owners of the media organisations which compromise the tenets of objective reporting in Nigeria.</p> Emmanuel Anayo Wokemezie (Doctoral Candidate) Copyright (c) 2020 Media & Communication Currents 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 4 2 91 107 Journalists Perception of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) in Nigeria: A Study of Journalists in Imo State http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/mcc/article/view/111 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study examined the perception of journalists’ in Imo State on the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).The specific objectives are to: determine whether journalists in Imo state have knowledge of the FOIA; find out whether journalists in Imo state use the FOIA; determine the perception of journalists in Imo state of the FOIA on protection, supremacy of the law, social barrier and withholding of information. The study was anchored on the libertarian theory of the press and knowledge gap theory. The survey research design was used. The population of the study was 180 registered journalists and the sample size was also 180 because it adopted the census principle. Questionnaire was adopted as instrument for data collection. The findings of this study revealed that journalists in Imo state have knowledge of the FOIA. It also revealed that journalists in Imo state have positive perception of the Act on protection, supremacy of the law, social barrier and withholding of information. It is therefore, concluded that FOIA though with its own limitation of not disclosing information that is injurious to the country can also be used to compel public institutions to release government records to the journalists. The researchers recommended Sensitization of journalists on the FOIA should be constantly encouraged by most of the professional bodies of the media in collaboration with legal experts so as to keep them informed and knowledgeable about the Act and when appropriate to use it when discharging their responsibility. Journalists should not abuse the privilege they get from the FOIA while making use of it.</p> Obayi Paul Martins, PhD Anorue Ifeanyi Luke, PhD Onyebuchi Alexander Chima, PhD Umeokeke Chinaza Etumnu Emeka Williams Copyright (c) 2020 Media & Communication Currents 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 4 2 108 128 Public Awareness and Knowledge of Approaches on the Campaign against Open Defecation in Benue State http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/mcc/article/view/112 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study examined public awareness and knowledge of approaches on the campaign against open defecation in Benue State. The work was anchored on Situation Awareness Theory of communication. Survey method was employed using questionnaire as instrument of data collection from a sample of 400 respondents drawn from the three zones of the State. The study sought to determine the level of public awareness and knowledge on approaches used in the campaign against open defecation in Benue State. This study found an adequate awareness level on the campaign against open defecation in Benue State. The study also ascertain the level of community knowledge on approaches used in the campaign against open defecation in Benue State. Top most approach found is the use of leaflets, posters and signboards (50%). Other campaign approaches found to project open defecation free status in the State include the use of opinion leaders, town criers and health workers’ mouth-to-mouth campaign (22%) and radio, television and newspaper (21%). The approaches that were rated least is social media/blogging (6%). The study found that the community compliance level is very good and not yet excellent yet. However, 10% of the respondents still defecate in the open and overwhelming 81% have access to toilet facilities. The study concludes that though defecation is a natural urge that is demanded of everyone, the place of latrines and toilet cannot be undermined. The study amongst others recommends aggressive publicity and campaign for full actualization of open defecation free Benue community, a combination of orthodox and mass media tools at the grassroots levels and the setting up of strong sanitation policies as well as monitoring team to rid the community from open defecation.</p> Kevin Alom, PhD Abari Ijuo Ogah, PhD Samuel Dogo Copyright (c) 2020 Media & Communication Currents 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 4 2 129 148 Study of the Use of Website and Social Networking Sites as Public Relations Dialogic Tools in Universities in Kogi State Nigeria http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/mcc/article/view/113 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study investigates the use of website and social networking sites (SNS) for dialogic purposes to the enhancement of the performance of public relations functions by the universities in Kogi state. The study sought to determine how public relations officers of universities use website and social networking sites as dialogic tools; the factors that influence the preference for the adoption of website or a particular social networking site dialogic tools; how the usage of website and social networking sites as dialogic tools impact on the way public relations officers in universities in Kogi State communicate with their internal publics. 12 Public Relations Officers in the universities were purposively selected and interviewed. The study found that the adaption of website and SNS by the universities for PR functions has brought about real-time interactivity, quick feedback, mutual relationship which is the hallmark of dialogic communication. SNS like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, WhatsApp, YouTube etc. have made Public relations in Kogi state Universities to engage with their internal public in a dialogic, speed, wider reach and in a very efficient ways. Although, universities public relations practitioners utilise website and SNS for improved professionalism, it is not without challenges. These challenges are information trust, identity control, ICTs knowledge and crisis management. It is recommended that university PR practitioners should engage in real-time regular monitoring and manage the login into the platforms by unscrupulous and anonymous individuals. Also, only credible, and reliable information should be posted or shared on the websites and social media handles.</p> Okaiyeto Simon Ayodele Adelanwa Abdulqudus Atanda Copyright (c) 2020 Media & Communication Currents 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 4 2 149 170 Human Media and Behaviour Change Communication Trajectory of Calabar Youths’ of Cross River State in the EndSARS Excesses http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/mcc/article/view/114 <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper examines human media and Behaviour Change Communication trajectory of Calabar youths of Cross River State in the EndSARS excesses. Objectives of the paper include: to identify behaviour change communication approaches adopted by human media, to assess human media’s commitment to behaviour change communication and to determine the relationship between human media’s change communication activities and the 2020 youth EndSARS excesses in Calabar, Cross River State. The study adopted the survey and descriptive research designs to elicit data from the primary audience. The tool used for data collection was the questionnaire. The sample size of the population of the study was 597. The convenience sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Findings indicated that the approaches used are: face-to-face advisory sessions through family meetings; peers communication through unofficial physical forums, online/virtual-chats; personal counselling and preaching of morality. Findings also showed that human media’s inadequate commitment to behaviour change communication approaches over the years and had perhaps partly contributed to the EndSARS excesses in Calabar, Cross River State. The study concludes that the failure to apply human media approaches in communicating to Calabar youths is one of the direct causes of the EndSARS excesses in Calabar, Cross River State. The paper recommends that the human media should plan and adopt behaviour change communication and apply it in communicating to youths and mobilizing them against embracing anti-social vices in Nigeria.</p> Stanislaus Iyorza (Ph.D) Bassey Nsa Copyright (c) 2020 Media & Communication Currents 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 4 2 171 190 ICT and Governance: Driving Public Service Productivity through E- Government in Nigeria http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/mcc/article/view/115 <p style="text-align: justify;">The business of governance has continued to be challenging in recent times owing to technological development. These challenges occasioned by the increasing demand for accountability, transparency and in recent times the COVID 19 pandemic are putting pressure on the public service to embrace digital innovation to enhance productivity. This paper therefore discusses ICT and e-governance: driving public service productivity through e-government. The paper’s objectives: examined the role of e- government in enhancing productivity in public service, e-government as an effective driver for public service productivity and the implications for enhanced service delivery in the Nigerian public service. The paper adopted Technology Acceptance Model as its theoretical framework. The method adopted was library research and secondary sources. The paper argued that e-government was necessary in other to ensure efficient, effective and transparent service delivery in governance. The paper concludes that e-Government drives productivity in the public service by enhancing public service productivity. The paper recommends that the government must tackle the challenge of poor literature level of public servants in information and communication technology.</p> Nuhu Diraso Gapsiso Ph.D Copyright (c) 2020 Media & Communication Currents 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 4 2 191 204 Public Perception of the Customer Relations Practices for Sustainable Patronage in Select Nigerian Banks in Port Harcourt: A study of Access and Polaris Banks http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/mcc/article/view/116 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study investigated the public perception of the customer relations practices for sustainable patronage in Access and Polaris banks in Port Harcourt. The main objective of the study was to find out customer perception of the customer relations practices of Access and Polaris banks in Port Harcourt. Survey was adopted for the study. The sample size was 384, determined by the use of Raosoft online sample size calculator. Purposive and Accidental sampling techniques were used to select the banks and respondents from the population. Questionnaire was used to elicit responses from the Access and Polaris bank customers in Port Harcourt. Findings of the study showed that customers perceive the bank staff of both Access and Polaris banks as having a warm and friendly attitude. There is good perception for provision of quick and efficient services as well as provision of regular update on customer bank account transactions. However, customers do not hold a favourable disposition towards provision of information about their bank services and new services that emerge in the banks. The study concludes that Good staff attitude to customers, effective bank-customer communication and efficient provision of information and quality services to the customer as and at when due are basic factors that should remain an utmost priority in both Access and Polaris banks in order to attain sustainable customer patronage. The study recommended that the banks should work on the lapses in service delivery and conduct a regular review of the various aspects of their customer relations practices.</p> Leton Cynthia Kuru Barigbon Gbara Nsereka, Ph.D Copyright (c) 2020 Media & Communication Currents 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 4 2 205 223 Audience perception of the credibility of AKBC Radio and Planet FM in the coverage of 2019 elections in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/mcc/article/view/117 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study examined audience perception of the credibility of AKBC Radio and Planet FM in the coverage of 2019 elections in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. The research objectives included finding out whether the audience have perceived AKBC Radio and Planet FM as giving adequate coverage to the 2019 general elections in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria; whether the audience perceived AKBC Radio and Planet FM as having given equal opportunity to all political parties during the 2019 general elections in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. The research adopted the survey method where a total of 384 respondents were drawn from the population of Akwa Ibom State. The findings revealed that audience perceived that the two radio stations- AKBC Radio and Planet FM, had devoted airtime to the coverage of 2019 elections in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria but Planet FM gave more airtime than AKBC Radio. Audience perceived that the state government-owned AKBC Radio did not give equal opportunity to all political parties during the elections and the audience scored Planet FM 72% on credibility scale while AKBC Radio recorded abysmal 26.4%. The study concluded that ownership structure had influenced the coverage of 2019 elections by AKBC Radio in contrast to Planet FM. It therefore recommends that the media should always give equal opportunity to all political parties and their candidates and also reflect all shades of opinion in reporting elections in order to retain the people’s confidence and maintain credibility since journalism is built on public trust.</p> Bassey Esuk Bassey, PhD Copyright (c) 2020 Media & Communication Currents 2020-12-07 2020-12-07 4 2 224 244