Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities <p>Liwuram, Journal of the Humanities is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the faculty of arts, University of Maiduguri. It publishes research works in the cultural arts, history, religion, literature, language philosophy and other fields of human endeavour. Besides English, the journal publishes papers in French, Hausa, Kanuri and Fulfulde.&nbsp;</p> Faculty of Arts, University of Maiduguri en-US Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 0189-8388 Unlocking The Deadlocks of Communication in Visual Arts: A Thermodynamic Deconstruction of ‘Broken Marriages’ A Sculptural Piece <p>This study attempts to deploy literary thermodynamics as a critical tool for a deconstructive analysis of selected sculptural artwork, using “Broken Marriage in the Niger Delta” by Marson Odili as a case study. The paper argues that the sculptural work generates meanings other than what the sculptor intends it to mean. Instead of broken marriages as themes, this paper discovers and recommends domestic violence against women as an appropriate theme. The work by thermodynamic stand of creativity and criticism fails to offer protection, freedom, and balance and therefore is considered a thermodynamic tragic piece.</p> Benedict Binebai Victoria Seitonghan Maky-Yasoro Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 2 7 Agakumorphics: Paintings that Make Real Movement and Music <p>Art in contemporary times has been reinvented to transcend the boundaries of mere aesthetics to a more dynamic sphere of political, social, and religious functions/dimension. It has become important for the artist to create works or pieces that challenge or invoke emotional reactions within the society; that can also lead to change. For such works to create and cause such change, they most transcend the normal confines of the canvas (painting) or amateur in the case of a three-dimensional work. Such works must be conceptual in nature thus effectively servicing their immediate environment. Such art, if successfully created, have a far more reaching effect than initially intended. Agaku’s works bear such conceptual propensities and transcend the boundaries of two-dimensional representations thereby creating a kind of freedom in the representation and understanding of contemporary Nigerian art. This paper discusses the artist, style and ideologies, materials and techniques as well as the philosophical and sociological impacts of the works produced.</p> Agaku Saghevwua Amos Adiwu Talatu Onkala Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 8 19 Aesthetic and Social Commentary of the Mushroom Plant in Clay Form <p>Nature offers the opportunity for artists to explore varied forms and shapes for their works. It remains a major source of inspiration to which artists turn in to demonstrate their creative abilities. This paper examines the adaptive characteristic of the mushroom plant and the unusual ability of survival-- sprouting and blossoming in inclement weather conditions. The mushroom forms were stylized to further arouse thoughts. They were executed in the medium of clay and treated to antique effect to further portray the traditional Africa. The study, through the art work, mirrors the resolute nature of an African who establishes survival in a typically hostile environment--psychological or geographical. Such harsh environments are woven around hunger, diseases, political instability which includes Internally Displaced Person (IDP) status, as well as terrorism.</p> Ebute Jonathan Okewu Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 20 29 Stand Up Comedy and Economic Recession in Nigeria <p>One of the major issues of concern of the Nigerian government and her citizenry in the era of economic recession is on how to create employment and generate wealth for the masses so as to ameliorate poverty. Certainly, stand-up comedy as a genre of theatre provides soft landing ground for theatre artists in Nigeria in the recent times. This study, therefore, takes a critical look at stand- up comedy as theatre arts form. It goes further to analyse the place of stand-up comedy in charting a survival agenda in the Nigerian ailing economy. As a way of increasing employment and wealth generation, the paper suggests that theatre should properly be funded by the government, while efforts should also be redoubled by theatre professionals to increase the production of stand-up comedy in Nigeria as this would boost not only the revenue base of artists but the nation as a whole.</p> Jacob Shimrumun Ioraa Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 30 34 An Analysis of Selected Works in Amarna Period of Ancient Egyptian Art <p>Quite a number of studies have been documented on themes, concerning Egyptian art and culture. Since its discovery, a lot of information regarding, form, significance, belief systems and kingship patterns exist. One of the most significant Pharaoh who existed in Egyptian history was Akhenaten who is the subject of this discourse. His style and way of life made him different from any other king in the Old or New Kingdoms. His unique achievement and how he used “Maat” truthfully is the bane of this study. The methods of enquiry areiconography and psychoanalysis. These methods would be systematically integrated into the body of the work. The results show that the New Kingdom under the rulership of Akhenaten witnessed tremendous development. This was reflected in their art works, architecture and pattern of leadership.</p> Ese Odokuma-Aboderin, PhD Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 35 51 Symbolism in the Language of J.P. Clark's Early Plays: a Study of the Three Plays and Ozidi <p>This paper is a critical examination of the non-human characters in some of John Pepper Clark’s early plays. The plays under focus are <em>Song of a Goat</em>, <em>The Masquerade</em>, <em>The Raft </em>and <em>Ozidi</em>. About fourteen non-human characters have been selected and examined in the paper. The study highlights the symbolic nature non-human characters selected as they are revealed through the use of their symbolic meaning in the Izon mythology. It is through these non-human symbols that J.P. Clark presents the socio-cultural as well as the political experience of the Izon people for optimum understanding. The paper is expected to stimulate further researches into the covert and overt symbolic representations in Izon land, thus giving room for a kind of typology in a traditionally religious way as they presented to us by the playwright in the selected plays.</p> Ilize Anthony Othuke Sunday Doutimiariye Abraye Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 52 58 The Relevance of Theatre Arts in Nigeria <p>There is a relationship between theatre arts and life. Where life is nature lived as it comes, undiluted, unpolished, unedited, raw; theatre arts is life lived at a higher plain, more intense, more refined; therefore, more exciting, almost larger than life. In the theatre of life, we encounter Peter Brooks’ “Deadly” and Rough” theatre while in the theatre of existence we have his “Holy” theatre, and this is the doing of theatre artists- professional as well as academics. In this paper, the relevance of theatre arts and its practitioners is discussed. The relationship between theatre arts and other disciplines in the humanities is also elaborated to the effect that theatre art is also the literature of life and of existence. The paper employs the literary research method to interrogate the relationship between theatre arts and life. The findings show that theatre arts encapsulate the literature of life and should therefore be encouraged.</p> Chukwuma Anyanwu, PhD Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 59 69 Electronic Spamming: The Use of Time Deixis as a Persuasive Tool by GSM Providers in Nigeria <p>The aim of this paper is to discuss how GSM telecommunication companies in Nigeria use time deictic lexical items in their spam SMS to underpin other discourse styles to persuade their customers to subscribe to their services. The paper used both linguistic stylistics and the theory of deictic centre or origo as our theoretical framework to analyse the data that we got from our phone courtesy of the service providers. It concludes that the GSM service providers do not have the interests of their clients at heart when they send out those cleverly-crafted text messages. They only use language to financially feather their nests as they scoop millions of naira from their bamboozled subscribers, give a paltry percentage of the sum to a handful of ‘lucky winners’, who are shown on national television screens to lure others out there to subscribe to upcoming spams, and keep the greater chunk of the money for themselves.</p> Abdullahi Ahmad, PhD Kabiru Umar Jabaka, PhD, Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 70 78 Towards Linguistic Analysis of Hate Speeches in Electronic Communications and their Implications to National Security in Contemporary Nigeria <p>Conflicts and insecurity in the 21<sup>st</sup> century have drawn the attention of the world. Fragile situations have arisen because of the social conflicts that exist and are often deepened by the use of hate speeches. This study collated some social media chats and On-line reports that are considered as security challenges and analysed their grammatical structures. It discovered that some of the speeches were deliberately made to provoke hate while some others were erroneously committed as a result of poor proficiency in the language of communication. It further discovered that some of the speeches committed as a result of low proficiency can also be divided into two on the basis of errors that include wrong selection of appropriate lexical items, improper use of idiomatic expressions, ambiguity or receptive errors. The research is first approached through opinion sampling, where texts considered by the researchers as hate speeches were collated and distributed to fifty respondents who determined them as either instance of positive or negative speeches. Out of these, 70 were considered hateful with 30 not hateful. These were further examined linguistically and the findings revealed that 79% of those considered hate speeches were grammatically correct and therefore intentional, while 21% were results of linguistic inadequacies because the writers deviated from the standard rules of the English grammar. In some others, the statements were grammatical but there were some errors of reception, where the respondents could not decode the message properly, thereby giving wrong responses. The implication of this is that as a result of those errors, the write ups were ambiguous and often distorted messages were sent to the readers, which in turn distorted the whole communication. And which subsequently made the end results issues of contention that brought about exchange of opinions and insults that threaten National security. The study concludes that whatever form hate speech takes, it is both a linguistic and social issue which must be tackled.</p> Asabe Sadiya Mohammed Alhaji Abubakar Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 79 90 The Use of Insulting Expressions and Interpersonal Relationships Among Characters in A Man of the People <p>The researcher discusses the employment of insulting expressions by characters as they interact in <em>A Man of the People </em>(henceforth, AMOP). The paper adopted the theory of semiotics as our theoretical framework. It argues that anger is the major underlying factor that makes characters to exchange insulting terms, at times trading of blows, amongst themselves in the text under consideration. Exchange of bitter words amongst individuals negatively affects the interpersonal relationships that exist between characters in AMOP, concludes the researcher.</p> Abdullahi Ahmad, PhD Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 91 101 Some Challenges of Hausa Translation in Modern Scientific and Technological Innovations <p>Historically, translation had served as a means of communication and civilisation between different nations of the world. Translation had earlier played a key role in educational development and exchange of knowledge between different languages and nations. The history of modern civilisation and contacts between nations was no doubt facilitated by translation and translators of earlier time. It is a well-known fact that quite a number of languages and people in quarter of nations attained a peak of scientific and technological development of the modern day, through translation of works done by some scholars and researchers from other languages. Translation has helped greatly in the development of issues relating to education, science and technology, religion, cultural dissemination as well as fostering mutual understanding and unity among the world populace. Translation and interpretation still play a key role in communication and educational development among people of different languages. This paper looks at some of the challenges of Hausa translation in the modern technology and recommends solutions to the challenges. Hausa is one of the most widely spoken languages in West Africa and is being studied in various schools and institutions in different parts of the world. The language has embraced all the present scientific and technological development, yet is faced with some challenges of translations.This paper, therefore is an attempt to discuss the challenges and recommends solutions.</p> Muhammad Mustapha Umar Nazir Ibrahim Abbas Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 102 109 Factors and Actors in the Kola Nut Trade in Adamawa Emirate in the Twentieth Century <p>This paper examines the factors and actors in Kola nut trade in the twentieth century Adamawa Emirate. Kola nut was very important in exchange in the market system of the Emirate during that time. In fact, Kola trade traversed various regions of Nigeria with some acting as suppliers while others were consumers of the product. Adamawa, especially in the ninetieth century, was both a consumer and a supplier of a variant of a kola known as <em>Ganjigaga</em>. The factors that influenced/inhibited kola trade in Adamawa in the twentieth century included the imposition of colonial rule which introduced colonial currency and also partitioned the kola nut producing area of the emirate. Other factors are the rise in export earnings which encouraged the production of cash crops, improved transportation and affluence among the people. The actors in the trade are mainly wholesalers and retailers of the commodity and in the 20<sup>th</sup> century Adamawa there was the predominance of <em>Wudirawa </em>(people from Katagum) in the trade.</p> Hamza Tukur Ribadu, PhD Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 110 135 Population Displacements and Poverty in Nigeria between 1980 and 2015 <p>“Population Displacements and poverty in Nigeria between 1980 to 2015” has historicized the interface between population displacements and poverty in its various dimensions. It identifies sources of population displacement during the period to include violent conflicts, and environmental insecurity- natural disasters. The paper argues that the population displacements created fertile grounds for the exacerbation of poverty including deprivations to food, income opportunities, access to healthcare and education facilities, self-esteem, security, participation among other poverty dimensions. It also examines the roles of government, non-governmental organizations and individuals alike in salvaging the poverty conditions of the displaced persons and found out that the efforts made proved less significant due to the following factors:- lack of funds, no prior readiness to tackle population displacements, and corruption among others. The paper therefore recommends as follows: - there is the urgent need by government to locate the roots (the immediate and remote causes) of displacements and tackle them appropriately; the state and those saddled with the responsibility of seen its political affairs should ensure to give protection to the lives and property of citizens at all times. This is achievable through responsible and sensible governance that is built on democratic tenets; Nigerians on their part should uphold the principles of peace and dialogue in all circumstances. Data and information for analysis and presentation were sourced from oral, written and internet sources.</p> Terna Paise Agba, PhD Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 136 146 Impact of Boko Haram Insurgency on Bauchi Metropolis - 2009-2015 <p><em>Boko Haram </em>insurgency is largely becoming a household word globally as there is no neighboring country of Nigeria that is completely absolved from the effects. The activities of the sectarian since 2009-2015 had created a state of palpable fear in Bauchi metropolis, while the general impression that government is incapable of stemming the tides and the ripples generated by the insurgency. It is against this backdrop that this study examines the emergence of <em>Boko Haram </em>insurgency and its effect on Bauchi metropolis from 2009-2015.Thus, qualitative research method was employed while both primary and secondary source materials were used by the study. The primary sources include; oral interviews conducted with internally displaced persons, intellectuals (academia), security agents, marketers, religious leaders, community leaders and general public. The secondary data involves the use of published and unpublished books, government reports, holy book, journals, thesis, dissertations, newspapers and online materials. The study found that the prolonged insurgency was a manifestation of high level of religious extremism, history of Islamic religious movements, absence of ordinance regulating religious activities, stereotypes and misconceptions about the western secular educational system as practiced in Northern Nigeria and ignorance about Islam from its authentic sources. While long standing tension existed between <em>Boko Haram </em>and Nigerian government, the immediate cause of the violence stemmed from a clash with sect members for not wearing crash helmet. The activities of the sectarian had religious, economic, socio-political implications and displaced thousands of people in Bauchi metropolis. The study found that internally displaced persons taking Refuge in Bauchi are quite different set of displaced people in Nigeria. Basically, in most of the states in Nigeria, the displaced persons were settled in government official camps and being taking care of even though, their conditions were also deplorable. The Islamic insurgency had laid down patterns of settlement along religious lines and strictness in movement in Bauchi metropolis.</p> Samaila Simon Shehu Amina Ramat Saidu Mary Amos Copyright (c) 2018 Liwuram - Journal for the Humanities 2018-11-02 2018-11-02 19 1 148 157