Annals of Borno <p>This is a multi-disciplinary regional journal of research and documentation in the Human, Natural, Social and Applied Sciences, published by the University of Maiduguri Press (Publishing House). It mainly carries both synchronic and diachronic studies on Northeastern Nigeria, comprising Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe States and on the Chad Basin – the point of contact between Nigeria and her neighbouring countries of Cameroun, Niger and Chad.</p> University of Maiduguri Press (Printing Press) en-US Annals of Borno 0189-2207 HIV/AIDS Sensitisation Leaflets in Hausa and English: Semiotic and Textual Analysis <p>This paper makes a comparative content and semiotic analysis of HIV/AIDS sensitisation leaflets to ascertain the extent to which difference in language is responsible for conveying disparate messages to target readers. Four leaflets (two in English and two in Hausa) constituting two pairs of identical texts produced by the same organisation were selected and carefully compared, both textually and semiotically. The analysis reveals that campaigns on HIV/AIDS appear to cultivate different perceptions and attitudes in their audience, depending on the language used, resulting in different, somewhat opposing views and practices in dealing with the pandemic. On the basis of its findings, the paper stresses the need for HIV/AIDS campaigns in all languages to have common grounds in terms of addressing critical issues relating to the disease.</p> Baba Mai Bello Mohammed Laminu Mele Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 3 20 Thresholding-Based Feature Detection in Thermal Imaging <p>A method to detect facial features using thresholding in thermal images is presented. A subject’s face is detected in an image after extracting the subject from unwanted image background. The face is then detected and tracked in subsequent images in real-time. The inner corners of the two eyes are then located on the face and also tracked. The nose, which is below the detected corners, is then searched for and located. The detected corners of the eyes and nose were enclosed in circles and rectangle respectively to indicate detection and tracking. The computation time for each frame was about 25 ms, making this method suitable for real-time applications especially towards non-contact respiration monitoring.</p> A.H. Alkali Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 21 32 Design and Construction of a Universal Pipe-Bending Machine <p>A universal pipe bending machine has been successfully designed and constructed using locally available materials. The manually operated machine is portable and can be mounted in a workshop, as part of production machinery or in construction sites to aid pipes, rods and angle irons bending operations so as to enhance productivity and early completion of projects. The mechanical efficiency of this machine based on the mechanical advantage and velocity ratio was determined to be 80%. Due to its cost of production, production efficiency and simplicity of operation, the machine is found to be quite suitable for use in developing countries.</p> G. M. Ngala M. B. Oumarou A. B. Muhammad Copyright (c) 2015 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 33 42 Design, Construction and Testing of a Portable Dually-Operated Sieving Machine for Domestic Kitchen use <p>In a modern kitchen, the processing of food commonly involves sieving of substances (flour) to the required size. However, manual sieving is the most tedious and time-consuming operation in the processing of food substances. The development of a portable sieving machine would therefore drastically reduce the unpleasant work of the manual sieving largely. The machine has a dimension of 300 mm x 250 mm x 200 mm, which is suitable for domestic use and the predominant components for fabricating the machine were the electric motor, pulleys, shaft, belt, bolts and nuts, bearings and connecting rod. They were selected after appropriate design of the various components. After coupling, a test was carried out to determine the average quantity of the substance to be sieved with respect to the time taken to complete the sieving operation and the efficiency of the machine. Experiments showed that the machine has an efficiency of 88.43% when operated electrically and 27.65% efficiency in manual operation. 1.5 kg and 0.47 kg are the respective quantities of substances sieved in 60 seconds. The sieving machine also guarantees hygiene, which is a very important aspect of human life. Furthermore, it saves time and energy as it allows one to carry out other activities in the kitchen while sieving.</p> S. Aji L. A. Wajiro M.J. Madu Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 43 54 Development of Continuous Oscillatory Baffled Reactor Arrangement for Biodiesel Production from Jatropha oil <p>This research investigation involved the design and development of continuous oscillatory baffled reactor arrangement (COBRA) for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil using software. The software was developed using Visual Basic Programming Language for the preliminary design of the reactor. Some of the reactor geometrical configurations obtained from the software include; internal diameter, length and volume of the reactor which are 0.1 m, 3.1 m and 2.4x10-3 m3 respectively. Also, the volumetric flow rate and the total energy required for reactor operation were 1.34x10-5m3/s and 3.126x10-3W/m2 respectively. The total number of tanks in series in the reactor was determined to be 19. Hence, the reactor was constructed taking into consideration the engineering material selections after its detailed engineering design. The performance evaluation of the COBRA was carried out theoretically by comparing the Power density against length to diameter ratio for COBRA and Plug flow reactor. It was shown that length-to-diameter ratio was much smaller for the continuous oscillatory baffled reactor arrangement at similar power densities, meaning that an oscillatory flow reactor will be shorter by typically at least fifty times of magnitude than plug flow reactor. The dependence of the residence time distribution performance on the velocity ratio of COBRA was also investigated. The velocity ratio () increases from 1.0 to 8.0 as the number of tanks in series decreases from 85.0 to 10.0. It was shown that the number of tanks in series drops below 10. Better mixing in a continuous oscillatory baffled reactor was achieved when the velocity ratio was within the range of 2.0 to 8.0 and the number of tanks in series is above 10.</p> B. K. Highina S. Kiman I. M. Bugaje Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 55 64 Comparative Studies of Wastewater Treatment Using Moringa oleifera, Hypochlorite and Alum for Irrigation <p>The use of treated wastewater for irrigation purpose is becoming increasingly popular globally especially in arid and semi-arid regions where freshwater is scarce. In this paper, abattoir wastewater in Maiduguri was treated with Moringa oleifera (MO), Hypochlorite and Alum at 0 (Control), 0.10, 0.20, 0.30 and 0.40 g/L Moringa Seed Solution Concentration (MSSC) using FAO irrigation water quality guideline as benchmark and cost comparisons made for the three reagents used. Results from coliform count and turbidity plots showed that higher MSSC resulted to higher reduction in coliform count and turbidity values and vice versa. Also, it was found that MO is cheaper followed by Alum and Hypochlorite being costlier. Therefore, it is hereby recommended that MO seed solution be used as a water treatment reagent for irrigation.</p> A. Y. Arku S. M. Musa L. G. Abubakar Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 65 72 Engineering Properties of Palmyra Palm (Borassus aethiopum) Seeds at Different Moisture Contents <p>The data on the engineering properties of Palmyra palm seeds and kernels required for the design of the machine is not established. The removal of the kernel from the shell is usually achieved using a traditional method by roasting the seed and then break open with a stone, which is time-consuming and stressful. This research was carried out to determine some physical and mechanical properties of Palmyra palm seeds at three different moisture content levels of 8.09 %, 7.04 % and 5.50 %. The physical properties such as axial dimension, geometric mean diameter, surface area, static coefficient of friction, true density, bulk density and porosity were determined. The mechanical properties determined were compressive force, compressive stress and deformation both at peak and at break using Instron hydraulic universal tensile testing machine. The seed had major, intermediate, minor and geometric diameter as 10.89±1.65, 7.76±1.93, 9.14±1.84 and 9.11±1.53, respectively. While the major, intermediate, minor and geometric diameters for the kernel were 8.14±1.37, 5.08±1.19, 2.96±0.93 and 4.92±1.07 respectively. The mechanical properties of seed and kernel evaluated for force at peak, force at break, stress at peak, stress at break, deformation at peak and deformation at break were 8.03±1.87 k<em>N</em>, 10.82±0.23 k<em>N</em>, 0.46±0.07 k<em>N</em>/mm, 1.46±0.19 k<em>N</em>/mm, 3.98±0.19 mm, 4.10±0.16 mm and 17.14±1.66 k<em>N</em>, 36.44±8.24 k<em>N</em>, 0.14±1.37 k<em>N</em>/mm, 10.96±8.24 k<em>N</em>/mm, 5.21±1.28 mm and&nbsp; 5.53±1.33 mm respectively. The coefficient of static friction was highest on wood with 0.36±0.06 and 0.44±0.03 for seeds and kernel respectively. The results obtained from the experiment will contribute immensely to the existing knowledge aimed at solving the problems of equipment design to handle the processing of the seeds.</p> A. A. Balami I. Abubakar S. M. Dauda I. S. Mohammed M. S. Hussaini Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 73 84 Assessment of Physical Properties of Castor Seeds with Variety <p>Some physical properties of castor seeds were determined with a view to classifying the varieties and exploring the possibility of developing shelling and dehulling equipment for this important seed oil yielding crop. Four varieties were identified on the basis of colour and size and named White Big Size (WBS), Black Big Size (BBS), Grey Medium Size (GMS) and Grey Small Size (GSS) respectively. The physical properties studied were geometrical properties (size and shape); gravimetrical properties (mass, volume, porosity, particle and bulk densities) and frictional properties (angle of repose and coefficient of static friction). At the dry basis moisture content of 6.05, 7.19, 7.68 and 5.75% for WBS, BBS, GMS and GSS varieties respectively, the major, intermediate and minor diameters were 17.69, 16.34, 14.27, 8.97 mm; 13.12, 12.33, 9.08, 6.10 mm and 7.93, 7.19, 5.71, 4.56 mm respectively; the volumes were 132.50, 104.10, 43.40 and 16.30 for the WBS, BBS, GMS and GSS respectively. The sphericity and aspect ratio ranged from 0.635 to 0.702 and 0.636 to 0.755 depending on the variety. One thousand seed weight and particle mass were 0.754 kg and 0.77 g (WBS), 0.609 kg and 0.59 g (BBS), 0.330 kg and 0.32 g (GMS) 0.117 kg and 0.123 g (GSS). Particle and bulk densities and porosity ranged from 572.59 kgm-3 to 822.23kgm-3 , 445.75 kgm-3 to 609.33 kgm-3 and 20.20% to 27.70% respectively depending on the variety. Angle of repose and coefficient of static friction varied from 18.23O to 21.79O and 0.287 to 0.374 depending on the variety and the structural surface. The geometric, gravimetric and frictional properties of WBS and BBS castor varieties were higher than those of the GMS and GSS varieties because they are larger in size and have rougher surface.</p> F. A. Oluwole N. A. Aviara B. Umar Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 85 94 Computational Fluid Dynamic Procedures for Grid Generation and Solution-Induced Cooling Applied to Gas Turbine Hot Walls <p>Conjugate heat transfer (CHT) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were combined in this work and a review on the major characteristics that influence the numerical analysis was carried out. These formed the basis of fluid flow and wall conduction heat transfer interaction that are critical to gas turbine (GT) wall cooling. The key features of CHT CFD cooling computations of GT metal walls with applications to combustor wall, nozzle and turbine blade cooling: impingement, effusion and impingement/effusion systems were reviewed. Previous CFD works have been shown and comparisons were made with measured data, which indicates that CHT based experimental work is only possible where appropriate wall materials are used and thermal gradients are feasible. The analysis showed the significance of computational validation against experimental data from hot metal wall research facilities, which should also agree with the general principles and methods as used in the CFD. The target objective is to correlate the investigation to the basic computational methodologies that include: governing equations, turbulence model, grid resolution, boundary conditions, convergence and near-wall treatment. These were found to predict improved cooling geometries and its computational results using commercial CFD codes with good agreement.</p> A. M. El-jummah U. A. Mukhtar M. K. Adam Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 95 112 An Analysis of Building Collapse in Nigeria (1971-2016): Challenges for Stakeholders <p>The study investigated the analysis of collapsed buildings in Nigeria between1971 and 2016 and the challenges for the stakeholders. It examined the causes of some of the reported cases of building collapse and actions taken by the professional bodies, current building laws and the factors preventing the compliance with requirements of the Nigerian Building Codes (NBC 2006). The two methods used for data collection were primary and secondary approaches. The results show that the leading causes of building collapse within the period were structural failures (24.9%), substandard materials (13.2%) and poor workmanship (12.2%), faulty design (8.8%), use of quacks (7.3%) and inappropriate foundation (6.8%). It also noted though that, factors such as approval, design, geotechnical and regulation violations or excessive loading and carelessness ranged between (2.4 to 4.4%) individually; their harmful influences might lead to collapse of a major project even when under construction. Cities with most cases of collapse were Lagos (83), FCT Abuja (18), Rivers (13) and Oyo (14) and casualty rates recorded were Lagos (702), FCT Abuja (110), Rivers (178) and Oyo (127) which increased progressively over the years. The categories of buildings and their occurrences were 60% for private, 26% corporate and 14% public buildings. Therefore, the professional bodies and Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) are to create awareness on the evils and risk involved in the use of Quacks. For a complete solution to be achieved, adequate number of functional laboratories, equipment and machinery must be provided nationwide. Collapsed building prevention and investigation units are to be created in the project approval Departments of the Federal, State and Local Government levels. To prevent errors, before approval of all three-storey buildings and above, a committee of professionals is to confirm the correctness of such designs, instead of limiting the design responsibilities to one consultancy firm.</p> F. C. Omenihu L. O. Onundi M. A. Alkali Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 113 140 Performance Test of a Hydraulic Press for Oil Extraction <p>Vegetable oil is in high demand the world over. Extraction of oil from oil seeds/nuts is still based on traditional procedures in most of the rural areas in Nigeria. A simple hydraulic oil press adaptable to rural areas was constructed and tested to evaluate its performance. The press consists of a tool frame, 5-ton bottle hydraulic jack, the oil extraction unit comprising of the upper and lower press plates and the perforated cage. It operates on the principle of pressure from the hydraulic jack to extract oil from milled oilseeds. Results of the performance tests showed that a maximum oil recovery of 84.4% was obtained and oil extraction time is reduced by about 60%. The cake produced is of the same quality when compared with those produced with the traditional method.</p> F. A. Oluwole M. K. Adam M. B. OUMAROU Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 141 152 The Operational Implication of the Challenges of Islamic Banking in Nigeria. <p>Islamic banking was introduced in Nigeria as an alternative to financial intermediation with its mode of operation strictly in line with the principles of Shari’ah. However, its operations have been constrained partly by, both the judicial and financial institutions in the Country. The main objective of this study was to empirically examine the operational challenges of Islamic banking in Nigeria with particular reference to JAIZ International Bank Plc. We used both descriptive and inferential methods of analysis and adopted the non-probability sampling technique because it provides a better opportunity for administering questionnaires directly and individually to the respondents. The major findings of this study are: 1) the legal framework makes very limited provision for the operation of Islamic banking in Nigeria; 2) religion, manpower and moral hazards significantly lagged the operations of Islamic banking; and 3) competition with conventional banks is a major setback to Islamic banking in Nigeria. These key findings show that operational challenges are a major setback to the performance of Islamic banking in Nigeria and above all, competition with conventional banks affects the operations of Jaiz Bank significantly.</p> A. Mallum Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 153 166 A Review of Agricultural Finance Policy Development in Nigeria <p>This paper concentrates on a review of agricultural finance policies and the role of credit on agricultural development in Nigeria. It is well known that agricultural financing is the life-blood and nerve centre of agri-business enterprise with which all other inputs would be procured. It is in recognition of the role of finance in agricultural production that the Nigerian government has over the years formulated agricultural finance policies, programmes and institutions meant to encourage food production and better the lives of farmers. These agricultural finance policies, programmes and institutions are highlighted and discussed. The role of credit in agricultural development is crucial and its constraints can affect farmer’s investment behaviour. It is found that loan beneficiaries often obtain more farm income than non-beneficiaries. Generally, small scale farmer’s low access to credit facility is due to the requirement for collateral and the perceived high risk and uncertainty of agricultural production. The paper recommends that since farmers constitute the majority of population of Nigeria, they deserve government attention through the provision of incentives, particularly finance, in the form of credit. It is also recommended that policies geared toward diversification of agricultural credit activities should be encouraged in order to minimize risk and specialised staff should be allowed to handle loans granted to farmers so as to avoid default.</p> A. Mallum Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 167 178 Haematological Profiles in Apparently Healthy Blacksmiths in Maiduguri Metropolis (North East Nigeria) <p>The blacksmith is a person whose job is to make and repair things made of iron. This research was carried out to investigate the haematological parameters of blacksmiths resident in Maiduguri metropolis as compared to individuals not exposed to the hazards of dust, coat, soot, and smoke from metal fumes and carbon-monoxide. A total of eighty-two (82) subjects were screened in this study comprising forty-one (41) blacksmiths and forty one (41) non blacksmiths, used as the control. All the mean values obtained were presented as mean ± standard error of mean (SEM), the descriptive statistical method was used to analyse the result of the experiment. The mean haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, red and white blood cell counts in blacksmiths averaged are 9.0 0.29g/dl, 28.8 0.79%, 2.57 0.16x106/l, 5.6 3.3 x 103/l respectively. The corresponding mean values for non-blacksmiths used as control were 13.0 0.38g/dl (haemoglobin concentration), 40.4 0.88% (PCV), 4.71 0.06x106/l (RBC count) and 7.901.85x 103/l (white cell count). Thus, the haematological parameters were generally lower in the blacksmiths than in the control. The haematological parameters in blacksmiths exposed to occupational hazards for a considerable length of time were also found to be lower than those of other blacksmiths with lesser years of exposure.</p> A. M. Rabiu V. R. Osah A. I. Shugaba O. Enyikwola Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 179 188 Survey of Trichomoniasis Among Women in Maiduguri - Nigeria <p>A survey of trichomoniasis among women in Maiduguri, Nigeria was carried out. Mid-stream early morning urine samples were obtained in screw-capped sterile bottles from 108 women aged between 11-60 years attending the State Specialist Hospital Maiduguri. Laboratory findings showed that 70(64.8%) of the women had trichomoniasis. Age groups between 21-25 years had the highest prevalence of infection 24(22.2%). This study confirms the prevalence of trichomoniasis in Maiduguri, Nigeria.</p> A. A. Biu A. U. Christiana Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 189 192 Effects of Pregnancy on Some Serum Electrolytes and Liver Enzymes in Yankasa Ewes <p>Changes in some serum electrolytes concentrations and liver enzymes in pregnant Yankasa ewes were studied. Thirteen Yankasa sheep comprising 12 ewes (6 pregnant, 6 non-pregnant) and one ram were used. Pregnancy was achieved following natural mating after estrus synchronization by intramuscular administration of cloprostenol (250 µg) to each ewe at 11-day interval. Nonpregnant ewes with normal estrous cycle were served as control. Blood samples were collected from day 0 of observation in both groups and thereafter on bi-weekly basis for analysis of biochemical parameters (aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine amino-transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and electrolytes (calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) using standard methods. Serum AST and ALT levels decreased significantly (p &lt; 0.05) from 2nd to 5th month of gestation compared to control. However, ALP significant (p &lt; 0.05) increased during the gestation compared to control. Mean Ca2+, Na+ and K+ did not vary significantly (p &gt; 0.05) during pregnancy. It was concluded that decreased serum AST and ALT and increased ALP were features of pregnancy in Yankasa ewes. Serum electrolyte levels were not negatively affected during pregnancy in Yankasa ewes.</p> D. Yahi N. A. Ojo G. D. Mshelia Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 193 200 Studies on the Phytochemistry, Acute Toxicity and In vitro Trypanocidal Efficacy of Guiera senegalensis Leaf Aqueous Extract <p>Guiera senegalensis leaf aqueous extract was evaluated for its phytochemistry, acute toxicity and in vitro trypanocidal efficacy. The phytochemical screening for bioactive substances had tannins, terpenoids and reducing sugars with high scores (+++), alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, carbohydrates and glycosides with moderate scores (++),while anthraquinones and phlabotannins were not detected. The dose of the extract that produced 100% mortality was 800mg/kg/bw, while 400mg/kg bw showed 33.3% mortality. The calculated LD50 was 500mg/kg body weight. At doses of 100 and 200mg/kg bw, there was no mortality. The clinical sings observed in the treated albino rats were sluggishness, awkward posture, loss of appetite, starry hair coat and terminal death within 24 hours. The in vitro trypanocidal efficacy of Guiera senegalensis leaf aqueous extract showed a 100% mortality of Trypanosoma brucei at difference extract concentrations of 40mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 10mg/ml, 5mg/ml, 2.5mg/ml, 0.625mg/ml and 0.313mg/ml, meanwhile the extract concentrations of 0.156mg/ml and 0.078mg/ml showed mean percentage mortality of 93.8 and 97.1% respectively. The aqueous extract of Guiera senegalensis leaf contains phytochemical components that exhibit trypanocidal activity.</p> A. A. Biu L. B. Buratai I. U. Hambali M. S. Auwal F. A. Lawan F. B. Mustapha Y. Wakil P. A. Ruth M. M. Ibrahim A. W. Mbaya Copyright (c) 2016 Annals of Borno 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 26 1 201 208