Studies on the Phytochemistry, Acute Toxicity and In vitro Trypanocidal Efficacy of Guiera senegalensis Leaf Aqueous Extract

  • A. A. Biu Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
  • L. B. Buratai Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
  • I. U. Hambali Department of Veterinary Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
  • M. S. Auwal Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
  • F. A. Lawan Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
  • F. B. Mustapha Department of Veterinary Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
  • Y. Wakil Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
  • P. A. Ruth Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
  • M. M. Ibrahim Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
  • A. W. Mbaya Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
Keywords: Guiera senegalensis, Phytochemical Components, Acute Toxicity, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanocidal Efficacy

Abstract

Guiera senegalensis leaf aqueous extract was evaluated for its phytochemistry, acute toxicity and in vitro trypanocidal efficacy. The phytochemical screening for bioactive substances had tannins, terpenoids and reducing sugars with high scores (+++), alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, carbohydrates and glycosides with moderate scores (++),while anthraquinones and phlabotannins were not detected. The dose of the extract that produced 100% mortality was 800mg/kg/bw, while 400mg/kg bw showed 33.3% mortality. The calculated LD50 was 500mg/kg body weight. At doses of 100 and 200mg/kg bw, there was no mortality. The clinical sings observed in the treated albino rats were sluggishness, awkward posture, loss of appetite, starry hair coat and terminal death within 24 hours. The in vitro trypanocidal efficacy of Guiera senegalensis leaf aqueous extract showed a 100% mortality of Trypanosoma brucei at difference extract concentrations of 40mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 10mg/ml, 5mg/ml, 2.5mg/ml, 0.625mg/ml and 0.313mg/ml, meanwhile the extract concentrations of 0.156mg/ml and 0.078mg/ml showed mean percentage mortality of 93.8 and 97.1% respectively. The aqueous extract of Guiera senegalensis leaf contains phytochemical components that exhibit trypanocidal activity.

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Published
2016-06-27
How to Cite
A. A. Biu, L. B. Buratai, I. U. Hambali, M. S. Auwal, F. A. Lawan, F. B. Mustapha, Y. Wakil, P. A. Ruth, M. M. Ibrahim, & A. W. Mbaya. (2016). Studies on the Phytochemistry, Acute Toxicity and In vitro Trypanocidal Efficacy of Guiera senegalensis Leaf Aqueous Extract . Annals of Borno, 26(1), 201-208. Retrieved from http://journals.unimaid.edu.ng/index.php/annals_of_Borno/article/view/37