An Analysis of Building Collapse in Nigeria (1971-2016): Challenges for Stakeholders

  • F. C. Omenihu Department of Civil and Water Resources Engineering University of Maiduguri - Nigeria
  • L. O. Onundi Department of Civil and Water Resources Engineering University of Maiduguri - Nigeria
  • M. A. Alkali Department of Civil and Water Resources Engineering University of Maiduguri - Nigeria
Keywords: COREN, Nigeria, building codes and collapses


The study investigated the analysis of collapsed buildings in Nigeria between1971 and 2016 and the challenges for the stakeholders. It examined the causes of some of the reported cases of building collapse and actions taken by the professional bodies, current building laws and the factors preventing the compliance with requirements of the Nigerian Building Codes (NBC 2006). The two methods used for data collection were primary and secondary approaches. The results show that the leading causes of building collapse within the period were structural failures (24.9%), substandard materials (13.2%) and poor workmanship (12.2%), faulty design (8.8%), use of quacks (7.3%) and inappropriate foundation (6.8%). It also noted though that, factors such as approval, design, geotechnical and regulation violations or excessive loading and carelessness ranged between (2.4 to 4.4%) individually; their harmful influences might lead to collapse of a major project even when under construction. Cities with most cases of collapse were Lagos (83), FCT Abuja (18), Rivers (13) and Oyo (14) and casualty rates recorded were Lagos (702), FCT Abuja (110), Rivers (178) and Oyo (127) which increased progressively over the years. The categories of buildings and their occurrences were 60% for private, 26% corporate and 14% public buildings. Therefore, the professional bodies and Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) are to create awareness on the evils and risk involved in the use of Quacks. For a complete solution to be achieved, adequate number of functional laboratories, equipment and machinery must be provided nationwide. Collapsed building prevention and investigation units are to be created in the project approval Departments of the Federal, State and Local Government levels. To prevent errors, before approval of all three-storey buildings and above, a committee of professionals is to confirm the correctness of such designs, instead of limiting the design responsibilities to one consultancy firm.


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How to Cite
F. C. Omenihu, L. O. Onundi, & M. A. Alkali. (2016). An Analysis of Building Collapse in Nigeria (1971-2016): Challenges for Stakeholders. Annals of Borno, 26(1), 113-140. Retrieved from