Computational Fluid Dynamic Procedures for Grid Generation and Solution-Induced Cooling Applied to Gas Turbine Hot Walls
Conjugate heat transfer (CHT) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were combined in this work and a review on the major characteristics that influence the numerical analysis was carried out. These formed the basis of fluid flow and wall conduction heat transfer interaction that are critical to gas turbine (GT) wall cooling. The key features of CHT CFD cooling computations of GT metal walls with applications to combustor wall, nozzle and turbine blade cooling: impingement, effusion and impingement/effusion systems were reviewed. Previous CFD works have been shown and comparisons were made with measured data, which indicates that CHT based experimental work is only possible where appropriate wall materials are used and thermal gradients are feasible. The analysis showed the significance of computational validation against experimental data from hot metal wall research facilities, which should also agree with the general principles and methods as used in the CFD. The target objective is to correlate the investigation to the basic computational methodologies that include: governing equations, turbulence model, grid resolution, boundary conditions, convergence and near-wall treatment. These were found to predict improved cooling geometries and its computational results using commercial CFD codes with good agreement.
Andrews, G. E., Asere, A. A., Hussain, C. I. and Mkpadi, M. C. 1985. Full Coverage
Impingement Heat Transfer: The Variation in Pitch to Diameter Ratio at a Constant Gap.
Proportion and Energetics Panel of AGARD, 65th Symposium, 'Heat Transfer and
Cooling in Gas Turbines', Paper 26, 1 - 12.
Ariff, M., Salim, S.M. and Cheah, S.C. 2009a. Wall y+ Approach for Dealing With
Turbulent Flow Over a Surface Mounted Cube: Part 1 - Low Reynolds Number. Proc.
Seventh Int. Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries, CSIRO, 1 - 6.
Ariff, M., Salim, S.M. and Cheah, S.C. 2009b. Wall y+ Approach for Dealing With
Turbulent Flow Over a Surface Mounted Cube: Part 2 - High Reynolds Number. Proc.
Seventh Int. Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries, CSIRO, 1 - 6.
ASME V & V. 2009. Standard for Verification and Validation in Computational Fluid
Dynamics and Heat Transfer: An American National Standard. The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, USA, 20.
Bailey, J. C., Intile, J., Fric, T. F., Tolpadi, A. K., Nirmalan, N. V. and Bunker, R. S.
Experimental and Numerical Study of Heat Transfer in a Gas Turbine Combustor
Liner. Trans. ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines and Power, 125, 994 - 1002.
Bernard, P. S. and Wallace, J. M. 2002. Turbulent Flows: Analysis, Measurement and
Prediction, New Jersey, USA, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Brooks, F. J. 2010. GE Gas Turbine Performance Characteristics. GE Power Systems,
GER-3567H, 1 - 16.
Cengel, Y. A. and Cimbala, J. M. 2010. Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Application
(Second Edition in SI Units), McGraw-Hill Co., Int. NY.
Chen, C. -J. and Jaw, S. -Y. 1998. Fundamentals of Turbulence Modelling. Taylor and
Chen, H. C. and Patel, V. C. 1988. Near-Wall Turbulence Models for Complex Flows
Including Seperation. AIAA Journal, 26 (6), 641 - 648.
Cho, H. H., Rhee, D. H. and Goldstein, R. J. 2008. Effects of Hole Arrangements on
Local Heat/Mass Transfer for Impingement/Effusion Cooling With Small Hole Spacing.
Trans. ASME J. Turbomachinery, 130, 1 - 11.
El-jummah, A. M. 2015. Impingement and Impingement/Effusion Cooling of Gas
Turbine Components: Conjugate Heat Transfer Predictions. Ph. D Thesis, University of
El-jummah, A. M., Abdul Hussain, R. A. A., Andrews, G. E. and Staggs, J. E. J. 2014.
Conjugate Heat Transfer Computational Fluid Dynamic Predictions of Impingement Heat
Transfer: The Influence of Hole Pitch to Diameter Ratio X/D at Constant Impingement
Gap Z. Trans. ASME J. Turbomachinery, 136 (12), 1 - 16.
El-jummah, A. M., Andrews, G. E. and Staggs, J. E. J. 2015a. CHT/CFD Predictions of
Impingement Cooling With Four Sided Flow Exit. Proc. ASME Turbo Expo, GT-42256
El-jummah, A. M., Andrews, G. E. and Staggs, J. E. J. 2015b. Conjugate Heat Transfer
CFD Predictions of Metal Walls with Arrays of Short Holes as Used in Impingement and
Effusion Cooling. Proc. GTSJ Int. Gas Turbine Congress, IGTC TS - 266, 1 - 9.
El-jummah, A. M., Andrews, G. E. and Staggs, J. E. J. 2016a. Impingement Jet Cooling
with Ribs and Pin Fin Obstacles in Co-flow Configurations: Conjugate Heat Transfer
Computational Fluid Dynamic Predictions. Proc. ASME Turbo Expo: Turbomachinery
Technical Conference and Exposition, GT2016- 57021, 1 - 16.
El-jummah, A. M., Andrews, G. E. and Staggs, J. E. J. 2016b. Impingement/Effusion
Cooling Wall Heat Transfer: Conjugate Heat Transfer Computational Fluid Dynamic
Predictions. Proc. ASME Turbo Expo: Turbomachinery Technical Conference &
Exposition, GT2016- 56961, 1 - 12.
El-jummah, A. M., Abdul Hussain, R. A. A., Andrews, G. E. and Staggs, J. E. J. 2013.
Conjugate Heat Transfer CFD Predictions of the Surface Averaged Impingement Heat
Transfer Coefficients for Impingement Cooling with Backside Cross-flow. Proc. ASME
IMECE Conference, IMECE-63580, 1 - 14.
Florschuetz, L. W., Metzger, D. E. and Su, C. C. 1984. Heat Transfer Characteristics for
Jet Array Impingement With Initial Cross-Flow. ASME J. Heat Transfer, 106, 34 - 41.
Fluent, I. 2009. ANSYS Fluent User's Gude. Release 12.0, Fluent In., Lebanon, NH.
Incropera, F. P., Dewitt, D. P., Bergman, T. L. and Lavine, A. S. 2007. Fundamentals of
Heat and Mass Transfer, Hoboken, USA, John Wiley & Sons.
Kini, C. R., Shenoy, B. S. and Sharma, N. Y. 2011. A Computational Conjugate Thermal
Analysis of HP Stage Turbine Blade Cooling with Innovative Cooling Passage
Geometries. Proc. Worid Congress Eng., WCE III, 1 - 6.
Launder, B. E. and Spalding, D. B. 1974. The Numerical Computation of Turbulent
Flows. North-Holland Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 3, 269
Ma C., Wang, J., Zang, S. and Ji, Y. 2014. Comparative Study of Impinging Jet Array
Heat Transfer on a Flat Plate Cooled by Superheated Steam and Air. Proc. ASME Turbo
Expo, GT-25493, 1 - 9.
Mills, A. F. 1999. Basic Heat and Mass Transfer, New Jersey, USA, Prentice Hall.
Nuutinen, M., Kaario, O. and Larmi, M. 2009. Advances in Variable Density Wall
Functions for Turbulent Flow CFD-Simulations, Emphasis on Heat Transfer. SAE
International, 2009-01-1975, 1 - 16.
Oguntade, H. I., Andrews, G. E., Burns, A. D., Ingham, D. B. and Pourkashanian, M. M.
Improved Trench Film Cooling WIth Shaped Trench Outlets. Trans. ASME J.
Turbomachinery, 135, 1 - 10.
Panda, R. K. and Prasad, B. V. S. S. S. 2012. Conjugate Heat Transfer from Flat Plate
with Combined Impingement and Film Cooling. Proc. ASME Turbo Expo, GT-68830, 1 -
Pope, S. B. 2000. Turbulent Flows, UK, Cambridge University Press.
Sharif, M. A. R. and Mothe, K. K. 2009. Evaluation of Turbulent Models in the
Prediction of Heat Transfer Due to Slot-Jet Impingement on Plane Concave Surfaces.
Taylor & Franscis Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B, 55, 273 - 294.
Sharif, M. A. R. and Mothe, K. K. 2010. Parametric Study of Turbulent Slot-Jet
Impingement Heat transfer from Concave Cylindrical Surfaces. Elsevier Int. J. Thermal
Sciences, 49, 428 - 442.
Sparrow, E. M. 1965. Radiation Heat Transfer Between Surfaces. Advances in Heat
Transfer, Academic Press, New York and London, 2, 399 - 452.
Spring, S., Xing, Y. and Weigand, B. 2012. Experimental and Numerical Study of Heat
Transfer from Arrayof Impinging Jets with Surface Ribs. ASME J. Heat Transfer, 134,1-
Tennehill, J. C., Anderson, D. A. and Pletcher, R. H. 1997. Computational Fluid
Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Second Edition, USA, Taylor & Franscis.
Tennekes, H. and Lumley, J. L. 1992. A First Course in Turbulence, Cambridge,
England, The MIT Press.
Van Treuren, K. W., Wang, Z., Ireland, P. T. and Jones, T. V. 1994. Detailed
Measurements of Local Heat Transfer Coefficient and Adiabatic Wall Temperature
Beneath an Array of Impinging Jets. Trans. ASME J. Turbomachinery, 116, 369 - 374.
Versteeg, H. K. and Malalasekera, W. 2007. An Introduction to Computational Fluid
Dynamics: The Finite Volume Method, Harlow, England, Pearson, Prentice Hall.
Wang, X., Liu, R., Bai, X. and Yao, J. 2011. Numerical Study on Flow and Heat Transfer
Characteristics of Jet Impingement. Proc. ASME Turbo Expo., GT-45287, 1 - 10.
Ward Smith, A. J. 1971. Pressure Losses in Ducted Flows: A Unified Treatment of the
Flow and Pressure Drop Characteristics of Constrictions Having Orifices With Square
Edges. Butterworths, London, Part 4, 135 - 191.
Zhang, C., Wang, Z., Liu, J. and An, B. 2013. The Effects Biot Number on the Conjugate
Film Cooling Effectiveness Under Different Blowing Ratios. Proc. ASME Turbo Expo, GT-94041, 1 - 9.