Al-Mahram International Journal 2020-11-17T10:18:18+00:00 Professor Ibrahim Maina Waziri Open Journal Systems <p>Al-Mahram International Journal is a bi-annual International Journal of the Centre for Trans-Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri. It publishes empirical studies and research works on cultural, economic, education, historical, languages and linguistics, political and religious issues relating to the Saharan region. &nbsp;The Journal invites well-researched and scholarly papers on all aspects of the Saharan region.&nbsp; Papers may be submitted in either English or Arabic.</p> THE TRAVAILS OF INSURGENCY ON HERITAGE SITES AND RELICS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 2020-11-17T10:18:17+00:00 A. Garba A. H. Girei A. B. Hamid <p>The whole of sub-Saharan Africa over the years has witnessed several instances of insurgency which resulted in killing, maiming, displacement, and migration of the affected populace to areas where they will have solace. These displaced populations are today internationally recognized with the acronym IDPs (internally displaced persons). This paper in essence will attempt to examine on a wholistic scale the travails of insurgency in the Sub-Saharan region of Africa. The sub-Sahara is geographically defined to include “areas of Africa that lie south of Sahara desert,” and politically it consists of “African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara such as Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros and Mauritania” ( This paper was predicated due to the current travails sub-Saharan Africa faces as a theatre of conflict, religious or otherwise devastating the larger portion of our local, national, and global heritage enshrined in monuments, sites, manuscripts, and several relics, which if not safeguarded will amount to a loss of history and heritage on a world scale. This information was derived from newspaper reports, personal communications, and on-site inspection.</p> 2017-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Al-Mahram International Journal MEANING AND ORIGIN OF AL-MAHRAM 2020-11-17T10:18:17+00:00 Maimudu Barma Mutai Adam Muhd Ajiri <p>This paper article adopted the name of an international published by the Centre for Research and Documentation in Trans-Saharan Studies of, in Nigeria. From the previous publications of this journal, it appears no article has been presented to explain the meaning and genesis of the term Al-Mahram. This article is an effort to trace the origin and meaning of Al-Mahram and also describe its intellectual position worthy for adoptions.</p> 2017-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Al-Mahram International Journal ISLAM, THE RELIGION OF PEACE AND UNITY 2020-11-17T10:18:17+00:00 Abba Buba <p>Peaceful co-existence among people of different faiths is a thing that is admitted to be the yardstick of unity, hence encouraged by Islam. As ambassador of peace and unity, Islam spells out to its adherents how they could associate themselves with the non-Muslims in order to ensure peace, unity, stability and progress. It is in this content that this paper sought to discuss with prove from Qur’an, which encourages peace, tolerance and unity. The paper goes further to give highlight of numerous examples, in the content of the noble Qur’an and scholars view of religion, peace and unity.</p> 2017-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Al-Mahram International Journal EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PLANT EXTRACTS ON THE ABUNDANCE OF EUPROCTIS SPP. ON WHITE MAIZE CROP IN DALWA VILLAGE, COMMERCIAL FARM 2020-11-17T10:18:17+00:00 Sharah, H.A. <p>The work on Euproctis producta infestation on maize crop was carried out in Dalwa village, Maiduguri commercial farm, where white maize and yellow maize were planted on alternate ridges one meter apart. This investigation was carried out on the two varieties of maize to compare their susceptibility level to this pest which devastate the maize crop during the cropping seasons. Effects of four botanical extracts (Neem seed solution, Hot pepper seed solution, Garlic bulb solution and Mahogany seed solution) were used. These extracts are not poisonous to humans and livestock, thus it was easy to formulate and used. Each of the four botanicals were designated nine plots and control plots of 5mx5m in size and replicated three times to give 45 plots for each extract. Fertilizer (N.P.K.-20:20:20) was applied at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after planting (WAP) as the maize began tassel and at the cob establishment stage. Atrazine herbicide was applied at 2.5 kg a.i./ha&nbsp; as pre-emergence to control weeds at and later supplemented the weeding with hand pulling of the remaining weeds at 6 WAP. Data collection was done every three days from 6am-10am on only five selected and tagged stands per plot because of the size of the experimental plots.&nbsp;</p> <p>The results showed that the mean Euproctis producta population on the maize showed no significant difference during two seasons in the controls (8.38 in 2011 and 7.34 in 2012), but only with varieties and among treated plots. Similar trends were observed&nbsp; with the infested and un-infested cobs. Mean yields were significant with treatments, where Neem gave the highest yield (2680.30 kg/ha for yellow maize. Hot pepper (2565.30 kg/ha yellow), Mahogany (2550.30 kg/ha yellow) and&nbsp; &nbsp;Garlic (2455.33 kg/ha yellow).The Control had (1950.33 kg/ha yellow ). Cost-benefit ratio in the Neem was (1:6699.75 yellow), Mahogany (1:6374.75 yellow), Hot pepper (1:3205.63 yellow) and Garlic (1:2045.11 yellow). Neem seed solution and Mahogany had better prospects than the rest of the botanicals and the control, while Garlic and Hot pepper cannot be recommended to farmers.</p> 2017-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Al-Mahram International Journal EXPLANATION: A CORE VALUE IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH 2020-11-17T10:18:17+00:00 Oyinloye Yinka Olanrewaju <p>Inferring proper meaning from the bulk of material evidence archaeologists come across on the field has been a major challenge over the years in most archaeological research. Bearing in mind that this evidence cannot speak for themselves, archaeologists have to speak for them. This paper presents the need to adopt various ways of knowing for a proper explanation of past phases by the archaeologist.</p> 2017-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Al-Mahram International Journal A PRELIMINARY ARCHAEOLOGICAL REPORT ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF NGAMO PEOPLE OF NDOKTO FARA, FIKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF YOBE STATE, NIGERIA 2020-11-17T10:18:17+00:00 Hassan Disa Hussaini <p>This paper examines the early history of the Ngamo people in Ndokto Fara, Fika Local Government Area of Yobe State, Nigeria. The objective of this paper centres on their history and some traditional ways of life before the coming of Islam. Archaeological methods adopted in the research include; a collection of oral information from the people of the area and archaeological survey. There are two versions of migration among the Ngamowa’s which both link to Kanem Bornu as their ancestral homeland. Over the years, there was a massive movement of hunters/gatherers and pastoralists from the Chad Basin down to Kanem and to other far and nearby locations in search of fertile land, firewood, and security. This paper, therefore, documents versions of these traditions and some traditional ways of life for better understanding and reconstruction of aspects of their past life ways.</p> 2017-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Al-Mahram International Journal HERITAGE MANAGEMENT IN THE SOKOTO RIMA BASIN: A CASE STUDY OF ALKALAWA IN SABON BIRNI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF SOKOTO STATE. 2020-11-17T10:18:17+00:00 Isa Muhammad <p>Alkalawa is an abandoned settlement site, located ten kilometers away from SabonBirni Local Government Area Sokoto State Nigeria. It has got some archaeological features like; graveyard, dye pits, ruins of the defensive wall, a historical manuscript which speak a lot about the heritage of Gobir people who settled in this site. The site is currently enlisted as one of the tourist sites in Sokoto State because of its archaeological potentials. The Ministry of Arts and Tourism started a site Museum that is uncompleted and It also attracts people from within and outside Nigeria who come to seek spiritual blessing from the grave of Bawa Jan Gwarzo and other rulers of Gobir Kingdom. Despite these potentials, the site is currently managed by the inhabitant of the present-day Alkalawa village. Little or no support is coming from the State Government in safeguarding these archaeological resources and the site is under threat due to intensive farming and desertification. This paper attempts to suggest ways towards managing and protecting this historical site for the purpose of education, tourism, and economic activities.</p> 2017-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Al-Mahram International Journal A HISTORY OF COLONIAL TAXATION IN WUDIL DISTRICT, KANO PROVINCE 1907-1960 2020-11-17T10:18:18+00:00 Nura Isah Zubairu <p>Taxation was an important component of the economy of Wudil Distict area even before the occupation of the area by British colonial authority. Since the area was part of Kano Kingdom it was introduced to the taxation system during the reign of <em>Sarki</em> Muhammad Sharefa (1703-31) who was believed to have introduced the policy of tax collection in <em>Kasar</em> Kano. Similarly, during the emirate administration, more taxes were collected in Kano emirate in general, Wudil District inclusive. The taxes that were collected at the beginning of emirate administration include <em>kharaj, zakat, jizya</em> and war booty. In view of the fact that the administration of Kano emirate became more complex and government financial needs increased in subsequent years the need to diversify the emirate sources of revenue became necessary. This led to increase in the incidence of the existing taxes and the introduction of new ones. The various taxes collected in Kano emirate</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2017-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Al-Mahram International Journal ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF OLD RIMAYE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT 2020-11-17T10:18:18+00:00 Abubakar Abdulqadir Muhammad <p>The Archaeology of Hausa land has often received less attention compared with the rest of the regions of Nigeria. Most of the groundbreaking researches and spectacular discoveries over time have come from early works of colonial and post-independence anthropologists/archaeologists. This paper thus is a modest contribution to the vast archaeology of the geographical and cultural space known as Hausa land. This preliminary archaeological report examines the peopling and economy of the Old Rimaye site. This author opines that like most settlements in this region, Old Rimaye was sited strategically along an intra-regional trade route on the highly fertile river valley of River Karaduwa by grain merchants, iron smelters/blacksmiths, clothe weavers, and dyers</p> 2017-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Al-Mahram International Journal GEOSPATIAL ASSESSMENT OF CHANGES IN FISHING GROUNDS OF THE NIGERIAN PORTION OF THE LAKE CHAD 2020-11-17T10:18:18+00:00 Usman Hyeladi Mshelizah Joel Mari Bwala Zarma Umar Maryah M.B. Mshelia Saraya Ibrahim <p>Geospatial assessment of changes in fishing grounds of the Nigerian portion of Lake Chad was carried out. The aim was to investigate the fishing grounds, types of fishing gears, and the species of fish caught at the site. Remotely sensed data and GIS techniques were used to assess the changes in fishing grounds of the Nigerian portion of Lake Chad. Satellite imageries of the study area were used for this research. The satellite data were processed and analyzed using GIS software packages, ground truth exercise was also conducted in order to ascertain the reality of some generated information from the remotely sensed data. Likewise, information on types of gear used in the fishing grounds and the types of fish caught in the fishing grounds were obtained from fishermen through Focus Group Discussion. The result revealed that open water and swampy area were identified as the fishing grounds in the study area. While the trends show that open water has been changing over time, wherein 1999 it covers about 17.20% of the Nigerian portion of the Lake Chad. And in 2013 it covers about 6% of the study area. While the swampy area as a fishing ground was stable, and it covers most parts of the study area than other classes. The result also revealed that there were some specific fishing gears (such as Malian trap, Hooks, and nets) and types of fishes (such as Tilapia, Cat fish, and long fish) that are caught in those fishing grounds.</p> 2017-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 Al-Mahram International Journal